0
0

Chapter 15. The Hallucinogens, Marijuana, and Club Drugs

Robert N. Pechnick, Ph.D.; Suzette Glasner-Edwards, Ph.D.; Jeffery N. Wilkins, M.D.; Mark S. Gold, M.D.; Anna Roytberg, Sc.B.; Kimberly Frost-Pineda, M.P.H.; William S. Jacobs, M.D.; Scott A. Teitelbaum, M.D.; David M. McDowell, M.D.

Sections

Excerpt

Hallucinogens that are likely to be abused include the ergot hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), which is the prototype of these drugs of abuse; other indolealkylamines such as psilocybin ("magic mushrooms") and dimethyltryptamine (DMT; also contained in the South American beverage ayahuasca); and the phenalkylamines, including mescaline and dimethoxymethylamphetamine (DOM; "STP"). The hallucinogens are a group of drugs that produce thought, mood, and perceptual changes. Depending on dose, expectation (set), and environment (setting), they also can induce euphoria and a state similar to a transcendental experience. Many drugs can cause auditory and/or visual hallucinations. These hallucinations can be present as part of a delirium, when accompanied by disturbances in judgment, orientation, intellect, memory, and emotion. Delirium also can result from drug withdrawal (e.g., associated with sedative-hypnotic and/or alcohol withdrawal). When used in the context of substance abuse, the term hallucinogens generally refers to a group of compounds that alter consciousness without producing delirium, sedation, excessive stimulation, or impairment of intellect or memory. Acute abstinence from repeated use of hallucinogens does not produce a withdrawal syndrome, and pharmacotherapy rarely is required for treatment of toxic effects. We therefore focus on the acute and chronic effects of these drugs and the psychosocial interventions necessary to treat their associated adverse reactions. LSD is discussed as the prototypical hallucinogen.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Table Reference Number
Table 15A–1. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (flashbacks)
Table Reference Number
Table 15B–1. Marijuana use by high school students
Table Reference Number
Table 15B–2. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for cannabis intoxication
Table Reference Number
Table 15B–3. Protective and risk factors associated with marijuana abstinence and use
Table Reference Number
Table 15B–4. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for substance [marijuana] dependence

References

Abraham HD, Aldridge AM: LSD: a point well taken. Addiction 89:762–763, 1994
 
Abraham HD, Duffy FH: EEG coherence in post-LSD visual hallucinations. Psychiatry Res 107:151–163, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Abraham HD, Fava M: Order of onset of substance abuse and depression in a sample of depressed outpatients. Compr Psychiatry 40:44–50, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Aghajanian GK: Serotonin and the action of LSD in the brain. Psychiatr Ann 24:137–141, 1994
 
Aldurra G, Crayton JW: Improvement of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder by treatment with a combination of fluoxetine and olanzapine: case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol 21:343–344, 2001
[PubMed]
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000
 
Berk SI, LeBlond RF, Hodges KB, et al: A mesenteric mass in a chronic LSD user. Am J Med 107:188–198, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Bonson KR, Murphy DL: Alterations in responses to LSD in humans associated with chronic administration of tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors or lithium. Behav Brain Res 73:229–233, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Bonson KR, Buckholtz JW, Murphy DL: Chronic administration of serotonergic antidepressants attenuates the subjective effects of LSD in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 14:425–436, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Bowers MB Jr: The role of drugs in the production of schizophreniform psychoses and related disorders, in Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress. Edited by Meltzer HY. New York, Raven, 1987, pp 819–828
 
Caton CL, Drake RE, Hasin DS, et al: Recent history differences between early phase primary psychotic disorders with concurrent substance use and substance-induced psychoses. Arch Gen Psych 62:137–145, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Cohen S: The Substance Abuse Problems. New York, Haworth, 1981
 
Fink M, Itil TM: Neurophysiology of phantastica: EEG and behavioral relations in man, in Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress, 1957–1967. Edited by Efrom DH. Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1968, pp 1231–1239
 
Fisher DD: The chronic side effects from LSD, in The Problems and Prospects of LSD. Edited by Ungerleider JT. Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas, 1972, pp 69–80
 
Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Schreckenberger M, Sabri O, et al: Neurometabolic effects of psilocybin, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE) and d-methamphetamine in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:565–581, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Halpern JH, Pope HG Jr: Do hallucinogens cause residual neuropsychological toxicity? Drug Alcohol Depend 53:247–256, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Hekimian LJ, Gershon S: Characteristics of drug abusers admitted to a psychiatric hospital. JAMA 205:75–80, 1968
 
Hermle L, Funfgeld M, Oepen G, et al: Mescaline-induced psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurometabolic effects in normal subjects: experimental psychosis as a tool for psychiatric research. Biol Psychiatry 32:976–991, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Hofmann A: Chemical, pharmacological, and medical aspects of psychotomimetics. J Exp Med Sci 5:31–51, 1961
[PubMed]
 
Kawasaki A, Purvin V: Persistent palinopsia following ingestion of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Arch Ophthalmol 114:47–50, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Lerner AG, Gelkopf M, Skladman I, et al: Flashback and hallucinogen persisting perception disorder: clinical aspects and pharmacological treatment approach. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 39:92–99, 2002a
 
Lerner AG, Shufman E, Kodesh A, et al: Risperidone-associated, benign transient visual disturbances in schizophrenic patients with a past history of LSD abuse. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 39:57–60, 2002b
 
Levi L, Miller NR: Visual illusions associated with previous drug abuse. J Neuroophthalmol 10:103–110, 1990
[PubMed]
 
Li J-H, Lin L-F: Genetic toxicology of abused drugs: a brief review. Mutagenesis 13:557–565, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Madden JS: LSD and post-hallucinogenic perceptual disorder. Addiction 86:762–763, 1994
 
Markel H, Lee A, Holmes RD, et al: LSD flashback syndrome exacerbated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in adolescents. J Pediatr 125:817–819, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Miller D: The drug dependent adolescent, in Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol 2. Edited by Feinstein SC, Giovachini P. New York, Basic Books, 1973, pp 70–97
 
Miller PL, Gay GR, Ferris KC, et al: Treatment of acute, adverse reactions: "I've tripped and I can't get down." J Psychoactive Drugs 24:277–279, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Moeller MR, Kraemer T: Drugs of abuse monitoring in blood for control of driving under the influence of drugs. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 24:210–221, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Morehead DB: Exacerbation of hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder with risperidone. J Clin Psychopharmacol 17:327–328, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Nolte KB, Zumwalt RE: Fatal peyote ingestion associated with Mallory-Weiss lacerations (letter). West J Med 170:328, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Perera KMH, Ferraro A, Pinto MRM: Catatonia LSD induced? Aust N Z J Psychiatry 29:324–327, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Resnick O, Krus DM, Raskin M: LSD-25 action in normal subjects treated with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Life Sci 3:1207–1214, 1964
[PubMed]
 
Riba J, Rodriguez-Fornells A, Urbano G, et al: Subjective effects and tolerability of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology 154:85–95, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Shick JFE, Smith DE: An analysis of the LSD flashback. J Psychedelic Drugs 3:13–19, 1970
 
Sobel J, Espinas O, Friedman S: Carotid artery obstruction following LSD capsule ingestion. Arch Intern Med 127:290–291, 1971
[PubMed]
 
Spengos K, Schwartz A, Hennerici M: Multifocal cerebral demyelination after magic mushroom abuse. J Neurol 247:224–225, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Strassman RJ: Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs: a review of the literature. J Nerv Ment Dis 172:577–595, 1984
[PubMed]
 
Strassman RJ, Qualls CR: Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans, I: neuroendocrine, autonomic and cardiovascular effects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:85–87, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Ungerleider JT: The acute side effects from LSD, in The Problems and Prospects of LSD. Edited by Ungerleider JT. Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas, 1972, pp 61–68
 
Ungerleider JT, Fisher DD, Fuller MC, et al: The bad trip: the etiology of the adverse LSD reaction. Am J Psychiatry 125:1483–1490, 1968
 
Vollenweider FX, Vollenweider-Scherpenhuyzen MFI, Babler A, et al: Psilocybin induces schizophrenia-like psychosis in humans via a serotonin-2 agonist action. Neuroreport 9:3897–3902, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Wesson DR, Smith DE: Psychedelics in Treatment Aspects of Drug Dependence. West Palm Beach, FL, CRC Press, 1978
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000
 
Battjes RJ, Gordon MS, O'Grady KE, et al: Evaluation of a group-based substance abuse treatment program for adolescents. J Subst Abuse Treat 27:123–134, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Beautrais AL, Joyce PR, Mulder RT: Cannabis abuse and serious suicide attempts. Addiction 94:1155–1164, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Budney AJ, Novy PL, Hughes JR: Marijuana withdrawal among adults seeking treatment for marijuana dependence. Addiction 94:1311–1322, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Budney AJ, Higgins ST, Radonovich KJ, et al: Adding voucher-based incentives to coping skills and motivational enhancement improves outcomes during treatment for marijuana dependence. J Consult Clin Psychol 68:1051–1061, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Budney AJ, Hughes JR, Moore BA, et al: Marijuana abstinence effects in marijuana smokers maintained in their home environment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:917–924, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Carroll LM, Onken LS: Behavioral therapies for drug abuse. Am J Psychiatry 162:1422–1460, 2005
 
Chen CY, O'Brien MS, Anthony JC: Who becomes cannabis dependent soon after onset of use? Epidemiological evidence from the United States: 2000–2001. Drug Alcohol Depend 79:11–22, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Childers SR, Breivogel CS: Cannabis and endogenous cannabinoid systems. Drug Alcohol Depend 51:173–187, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Copeland J, Swift W, Roffman R, et al: A randomized controlled trial of brief cognitive-behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorder. J Subst Abuse Treatment 21:55–64, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Cui SS, Bowen RC, Gu GB, et al: Prevention of cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome by lithium: involvement of oxytocinergic neuronal activation. J Neurosci 21:9867–9876, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Emery S, Wakefield MA, Terry-McElrath Y, et al: Televised state-sponsored anti-tobacco advertising and youth smoking beliefs and behavior in the United States, 1999–2000. Arch Pediatr Adolesc 159:639–645, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Gardner EL, Lowinson JH: Marijuana's interaction with the brain reward systems: update 1991. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 40:571–580, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Gold MS, Frost-Pineda K, Pomm R: Physician addicts: drugs of choice, specialties, epidemiology and why are they so treatable? Law Enforcement Forum 5(1):179–184, 2005
 
Hall J, Frost-Pineda K, Gold MS: Marijuana use linked to prescription stimulant abuse. Society for Biological Psychiatry 57(8S):159, 2005
 
Hall W: Health and Psychological Consequences of Cannabis Use (Monogr Series 25). Canbinn, Australian Government Publishing Service, 1994
 
Haney M, Ward AS, Comer SD, et al: Bupropion SR worsens mood during marijuana withdrawal in humans. Psychopharmacology 155:171–179, 2001a
 
Haney M, Ward AS, Hart CL, et al: Effects of nefazodone on marijuana withdrawal in humans [Abstract 241]. Drug Alcohol Depend 63S:62, 2001b
 
Haney M, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, et al: Marijuana withdrawal in humans: effects of oral THC or divalproex. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:158–170, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Justinova Z, Goldberg SR, Heishman SJ, et al: Self-administration of cannabinoids by experimental animals and human marijuana smokers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81:285–299, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Kelder SH, Murray NG, Orpinas P, et al: Depression and substance use in minority middle-school students. Am J Public Health 91:761–766, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Kelley AE, Berridge KC: The neuroscience of natural rewards: relevance to addictive drugs. J Neurosci 22:3306–3311, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Kim D, Thayer SA: Cannabinoids inhibit the formation of new synapses between hippocampal neurons in culture. J Neurosci 21:RC146, 2001
 
Kouri EM, Pope HG Jr: Abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from chronic marijuana use. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 8:483–492, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Marijuana Treatment Project Research Group: Brief treatments for cannabis dependence: findings from a randomized multisite trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 72:455–466, 2004
 
Martin BR, Mechoulam R, Razdan RK: Discovery and characterization of endogenous cannabinoids. Life Sci 65:573–595, 1999
[PubMed]
 
McGee R, Williams S, Poulton R, et al: A longitudinal study of cannabis use and mental health from adolescence to early adulthood. Addiction 95:491–503, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Mercer W, Jeffery WK: Fatal Traffic Accident Patterns and Driver Impairment in British Columbia. Vancouver, British Columbia, Police Commission, Ministry of Attorney General, 1991
 
Miller WR, Sanchez VC: Motivating young adults for treatment and lifestyle change, in Issues in Alcohol Use and Misuse in Young Adults. Edited by Howard GS, Nathan PE. Notre Dame, IN, University of Notre Dame Press, 1994, pp 55–82
 
Muccioli GG, Lambert DM: Current knowledge on antagonists and inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptors. Curr Med Chem 12:1361–1394, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Novak W: High Culture: Marijuana in the Lives of Americans. New York, Alfred A Knopf, 1980
 
Pijlman FT, Rigter SM, Hoek J, et al: Strong increase in total delta-THC in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops. Addict Biol 10:171–180, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Prochaska JO, Norcross JC, DiClemente CC: Changing for Good. New York, William Morrow, 1994
 
Ramaekers JG, Berghaus G, van Laar M, et al: Dose-related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend 73:109–119, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Ravinet-Trillou C, Arnone M, Delgorge C, et al: Anti-obesity effect of SR141716, a CB1 receptor antagonist, in diet-induced obese mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physio 284:R343–R344, 2003
 
Rey JM, Sawyer MG, Raphael B, et al: Mental health of teenagers who use cannabis. Results of an Australian survey. Br J Psychiatry 180:216–221, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Rogers RD, Robbins TW: Investigating the neurocognitive deficits associated with chronic drug misuse. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11:250–257, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Smith NT: A review of the published literature into cannabis withdrawal symptoms in human users. Addiction 97:621–632, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Solowij N, Stephens RS, Roffman RA, et al: Cognitive functioning of long-term heavy cannabis users seeking treatment. JAMA 287:1123–1131, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA): Results from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NHSDA Series H-22, DHHS Publ No. SMA 03-3836). Rockville, MD, 2003
 
Tanda G, Pontieri FE, DiChiara G: Cannabinoid and heroin activation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission by a common mu1 opioid receptor mechanism. Science 276:2048–2050, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Tullis LM, Dupont R, Frost-Pineda K, et al: Marijuana and tobacco: a major connection? J Addict Dis 22:51–62, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Van Os J, Bak M, Hanssen M, et al: Cannabis use and psychosis: a longitudinal population-based study. Am J Epidemiol 156:319–327, 2002
 
Vandrey R, Budney AJ, Kamon JL, et al: Cannabis withdrawal in adolescent treatment seekers. Drug Alcohol Depend 78:205–210, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Wagner FA, Anthony JC: From first drug use to drug dependence: developmental periods of risk for dependence upon marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol. Neuropsychopharmacology 26:479–488, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Warner LA, Kessler RC, Hughes M, et al: Prevalence and correlates of drug use and dependence in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:219–229, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Wickelgren I: Marijuana: harder than we thought? Science 276:1967–1968, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Ajaelo I, Koenig K, Snoey E: Severe hyponatremia and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following ecstasy use. Academic Emergency Medicine 5:839–840, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Ames D, Wirshing W: Ecstasy, the serotonin syndrome, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome—a possible link? JAMA 269:869–870, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Beck J, Rosenbaum M: Pursuit of Ecstasy: The MDMA experience. Albany, NY, State University of New York Press, 1994
 
Boys A, Lenton S, Norcross K: Polydrug use at raves by a Western Australian sample. Drug Alcohol Review 16:227–234, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Burgess C, O'Donoghoe A, Gill M: Agony and ecstasy: a review of MDMA effects and toxicity. European Psychiatry 15:287–294, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Chin MY, Kreutzer RA, Dyer JE: Acute poisoning from gamma-hydroxybutyrate in California. West J Med 156:380–384, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Cohen R: The Love Drug: Marching to the Beat of Ecstasy. Binghamton, NY, Hayworth Press, 1998
 
Cooper M: "Special K": rough catnip for clubgoers. New York Times, January 28, 1996, p A-6
 
Cotman CW, Monaghan DT: Chemistry and anatomy of excitatory amino acid systems, in Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress. Edited by Meltzer HY. New York, Raven, 1987, pp 194–210
 
Curran HV, Monaghan L: In and out of the K-hole: a comparison of the acute and residual effects of ketamine in frequent and infrequent ketamine users. Addiction 96:749–760, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Delgarno PJ, Shewan D: Illicit use of ketamine in Scotland. J Psychoactive Drugs 28:191–199, 1996
 
Demirkiran M, Jankovic J, Dean J: Ecstasy intoxication: an overlap between serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Clinical Neuropharmacol 19:157–164, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Dotson J, Ackerman D, West L: Ketamine abuse. J Drug Issues 25:751–757, 1995
 
Eisner B: Ecstasy: The MDMA Story. Boston, MA, Little, Brown, 1986
 
Eisner B: Ecstasy: The MDMA Story, 2nd Edition. Berkeley, CA, Ronin Publishing, 1993
 
Gallimberti L, Gentile N, Cibin M, et al: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid for treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Lancet 30:787–789, 1989
 
Galloway GP, Frederick SL, Staggers FE, et al: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: an emerging drug of abuse that causes physical dependence. Addiction 92:89–96, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Garfield JM, Garfield FB, Stone JG, et al: A comparison of psychologic responses to ketamine and thiopental–nitrous oxide–halothane anesthesia. Anesthesiology 36:329–338, 1994
 
Graeme KA: New drugs of abuse. Emerg Med Clin North Am 18(4):625–636, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Green A, Cross A, Goodwin G: Review of pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). Psychopharmacology 119:247–260, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Hechler V, Goebaille S, Maitre M: Selective distribution pattern of gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptors in the rat forebrain and mid-brain as revealed by quantitative autoradiograph. Brain Res 572:345–348, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Hermle L, Spitzer M, Borchardt K, et al: Psychological effects of MDE in normal subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 8:171–176, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Holmes SB, Banerjee AK, Alexander WD: Hyponatremia and seizures after ecstasy use. Postgrad Med J 75:32–43, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Jansen KLR: Ketamine—can chronic use impair memory? International Journal of the Addictions 25:133–139, 1990
[PubMed]
 
Kalant H: The pharmacology and toxicology of "ecstasy" (MDMA) and related drugs. Can Med Assoc J 165:917–928, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Krystal JH, Karper LP, Seityl JP, et al: Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist ketamine in humans. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:199–214, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Liester MB, Grob CS, Bravo GL, et al: Phenomenology and sequelae of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine use. J Nerv Ment Dis 180:345–354, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Malhotra AK, Pinals DA, Weingartner H, et al: NMDA receptor function and human cognition: the effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 14:301–307, 1996
[PubMed]
 
McCabe E, Layne E, Sayler D, et al: Synergy of ethanol and a natural soporific: gamma hydroxybutyrate. Science 171:404–406, 1971
[PubMed]
 
McCann U, Ricaurte G: Reinforcing subjective effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy") may be separable from its neurotoxic actions: clinical evidence. J Clin Psychopharmacol 13:214–217, 1993
[PubMed]
 
McCann UD, Ridenour A, Shaham Y, et al: Serotonin neurotoxicity after (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy"): a controlled study in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 10:129–138, 1994
[PubMed]
 
McCann UD, Eligulashvili W, Ricaurte GA: (+/-) 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy")-induced serotonin neurotoxicity: clinical studies. Neuropsychobiology 42:11–16, 2000
[PubMed]
 
McDowell DM: Testimony to House Judiciary Committee, 1998. Available at: http://www.house.gov/judiciary/mcdo0615.htm. Accessed February 1, 2004.
 
Montoya A, Sorrentino R, Lucas S, et al: Long-term neuropsychiatric consequences of "ecstasy" (MDMA): a review. Harv Rev Psychiatry 10:212–220, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Morgan MJ: Ecstasy (MDMA): a review of its possible persistent psychological effects. Psychopharmacology 152:230–248, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Óye N, Paulsen O, Maurset A: Effects of ketamine on sensory perception: evidence for a role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 260:1209–1213, 1992
 
Peroutka S, Newman H, Harris H: Subjective effects of 3,4-MDMA in recreational abusers. Neuropsychopharmacology 11:273–277, 1998
 
Rattray M: Ecstasy: towards an understanding of the biochemical basis of the actions of MDMA. Essays in Biochemistry 26:77–87, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Rodgers J: Cognitive performance amongst recreational users of "ecstasy." Psychopharmacology 151:19–24, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Schwartz RH, Mille NS: MDMA (ecstasy) and the rave: a review. Pediatrics 100:705–708, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Shulgin A: The background and chemistry of MDMA. J Psychoactive Drugs 18:291–304, 1986
[PubMed]
 
Siegel RK: The natural history of hallucinogens, in Hallucinogens: Neurochemistry, Behavioral, and Clinical Perspectives. Edited by Jacobs BL. New York, Raven Press, 1984, pp 1–17
 
Sprague JE, Everman SL, Nichols DE: An integrated hypothesis for the serotonergic axonal loss induced by 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Neurotoxicology 19:427–441, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Takahara J, Yunoki S, Yakushiji W, et al: Stimulatory effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid on growth hormone and prolactin release in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44:1014, 1977
[PubMed]
 
Turner JJ, Parrott AC: "Is MDMA a human neurotoxin?" Diverse views from the discussants. Neuropsychobiology 42:42–48, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Verkes RJ, Gijsman HJ, Pieters MS, et al: Cognitive performance and serotonergic function in users of ecstasy. Psychopharmacology 153:196–202, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Vickers MD: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. International Anesthesiology Clinics 71:75–89, 1969
 
Winstock AR, Griffiths P, Stewart D: Drugs and the dance music scene: a survey of current drug use patterns among a sample of dance music enthusiasts in the UK. Drug Alcohol Depend 64:9–17, 2001
[PubMed]
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 13.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 14.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 16.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 17.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 24.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
[Club drugs]. Acta Med Port 2011 Sep-Oct;24(5):739-56.
Club drugs: coming to a patient near you. Nurse Pract 2014;39(3):20-5; quiz 25-6.doi:10.1097/01.NPR.0000443227.72357.72.
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation