0
0

Clinical Presentation, Evaluation, and Differential Diagnosis

Sections

Excerpt

Dementia, being a syndrome, is defined entirely on clinical grounds. Table 13–2 lists the four critical elements of the definition. Dementia is a condition that affects cognition, which is defined as the mental processes used to obtain knowledge or to become aware of and interact with the environment. These processes include perception, imagination, judgment, memory, and language, as well as the processes people use to think, organize, and learn. For the dementia syndrome to be present, several areas of cognition must be affected (global). To differentiate dementia from mental retardation, the cognitive symptoms must represent a cognitive decline for the individual. The decline must be significant, typically sufficient to affect the person's daily functioning, operationalized as instrumental or basic daily living activities. Finally, because delirium can cause the full range of cognitive symptoms associated with dementia, it is critical that the cognitive syndrome be present in the absence of delirium. This broad definition has been operationalized in several criteria, with those of DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) being the most commonly used.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

FIGURE 13–2. Flowchart in the diagnosis of dementia.CIND = cognitive impairment not dementia; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; NPS = neuropsychiatric symptoms; VCI = vascular cognitive impairment.
Table Reference Number
Table 13–2. The four key elements of the dementia syndrome
Table Reference Number
Table 13–3. Cortical versus subcortical subsyndromes of dementia

References

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 45.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4th Edition > Chapter 1.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4th Edition > Chapter 4.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4th Edition > Chapter 7.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4th Edition > Chapter 11.  >
Psychiatric News
Read more at Psychiatric News >>
PubMed Articles
Hospitalization in community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease: frequency and causes. J Am Geriatr Soc 2010;58(8):1542-8.doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.02924.x.
Hypertension and cognitive function in the elderly. Dis Mon 2010;56(3):106-47.doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2009.12.007.
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation