Dietary Reference Intakes | Energy-Yielding Nutrients and Alcohol | Fiber and Water | Use of Nutritional Supplements
Although calorie needs decline with age (see next section),
the requirements for most other nutrients do not, making dietary
nutrient density important at a time when the added complications
of chronic illness and the side effects of medications and other
medical interventions for chronic conditions (e.g., special diets,
surgery, chemotherapy) decrease the likelihood of achieving it.
Dietary requirements are expressed as Dietary Reference Intakes
(DRIs), including Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes
(AIs) as appropriate, for all recognized essential nutrients, including
macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals (Institute of Medicine 1997, 1998, 2000, 2005).
In previously released versions of these recommendations, the oldest
age category was 51 years and older, so it is important to note
that the most recently released recommendations include recommendations for
those older than 70 years of age. Tables 28–1 and 28–2
show the DRIs (consisting of RDAs, or AIs when RDAs are not available)
for the older adult age categories. These recommendations are most
helpful in terms of guiding nutritional assessment and supplementation with
regard to the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). More specific
guidelines are needed to individualize recommendations for energy
and macronutrient intakes.