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Age < 40, male, high-potency agents
Torticollis, opisthotonos, oculogyric crisis, trismus, laryngospasm
Diphenhydramine (iv) or benztropine (iv); lorazepam
and maintain airway for laryngospasm
Age < 40, male, educated; schizophrenic, psychotic depression
Hypothermia/hyperthermia, EPS, hypotension,
anticholinergic toxicity, seizures, arrhythmia
Gastric lavage, hydration, antiparkinsonian agents
for EPS, cardiac monitoring
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Dehydration; lithium use; high doses
Delirium, hyperthermia, severe EPS, autonomic instability,
elevated CK and LFTs
Stop antipsychotics; dantrolene (iv), bromocriptine, lorazepam
CK = creatine kinase; EPS = extrapyramidal symptoms;
iv = intravenous; LFT = liver function tests.