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No evidence exists to support an indication for specific medication use in treatment of ODD, per se. There are reports of reduction in oppositional behaviors with indicated pharmacological treatment of concurrent disorders (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2007), such as ADHD. Medications for ADHD, including stimulants and clonidine, have been noted to reduce comorbid oppositional behaviors along with the primary symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (see Chapter 15, "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder"). There are clinical reports that atomoxetine (Bangs et al. 2008) and buspirone (Gross 1995) can reduce ODD behaviors in children with comorbid ADHD. Other symptoms of ODD are reduced with medication treatment of more severe physical aggression in youth (see the discussion of CD in the subsection "Treatment" later in this chapter; see also Chapter 37, "Aggression and Violence"), including the neuroleptics and mood stabilizers, but these medications have not been systematically studied in cases with only ODD.

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