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The examination of complaints of antisocial behaviors should follow the same steps and techniques as described for evaluation of oppositional behaviors above. The hostile and often suspicious nature of antisocial youth can present problems in establishing rapport. This is also often true for their parent or guardian, since many of these evaluations have not been initiated by the family but were required by other agencies. It is best to make clear to both the parent and the child the purpose of and what will happen during the interview and that it is very important to hear both sides of the story. A matter-of-fact approach that avoids making judgmental observations or placing blame is most productive. Research has found self-report of antisocial behavior to be quite accurate, although multiple sources are the most helpful in obtaining a complete picture. It is often mistakenly assumed that antisocial youth will deny or not report their misdeeds. In fact, they usually consider their antisocial behaviors to be justified and appropriate and sometimes are even boastful. Antisocial youth may conceal or lie about their activities if they believe that revealing information will result in consequences or punishment. When confronted with inconsistencies in their explanations for an incident, they will often offer another excuse without hesitation. Physical agitation and threats should be taken seriously and responded to quickly, and the interview should be terminated if there is any question as to the physical safety of those involved. The onset, frequency, and severity of each antisocial behavior are important in determining the specific subtype and overall severity classification of CD. Presence of risk factors, including history of physical and sexual abuse and family violence and criminality, should be determined (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1997). Information about gang membership and peer antisocial behavior, as well as positive peer relationships, is important in determining adverse influences and potential opportunities for change. School information is extremely helpful in assessing academic difficulties and behavior outside the home. Inquiries should be made about any involvement of child protective services and juvenile justice. Legal charges and court history should be collected for any delinquency. Frequently associated behaviors and problems, including substance abuse and risk taking behaviors, should be assessed.

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