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1. The clinician
should observe an appropriate level of confidentiality for the adolescent
during the assessment and treatment.
2. The mental
health assessment of older children and adolescents requires screening
questions about the use of alcohol and other substances of abuse.
3. If the
screening raises concerns about substance use, the clinician should
conduct a more formal evaluation to determine the quantity and frequency
of use and consequences of use for each substance used and whether
the youth meets criteria for SUD(s).
through the collection of bodily fluids or specimens, should be
a routine part of the formal evaluation and the ongoing assessment
of substance use both during and after treatment.
with SUDs should receive specific treatment for their substance
with SUDs should be treated in the least restrictive setting that
is safe and effective.
therapy or significant family/parental involvement in treatment
should be a component of treatment of SUDs.
programs and interventions should develop procedures to minimize
treatment dropout and to maximize motivation, compliance, and treatment
can be used when indicated for the management of craving and withdrawal
and for aversion therapy.
should encourage and develop peer support, especially regarding
the nonuse of substances.
approaches may be used as a basis for treatment. Attendance at Alcoholics
Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous groups comprises an adjunct to
professional treatment of SUDs and should be encouraged.
and interventions should attempt to provide comprehensive services
in other domains (e.g., vocational, recreational, medical, family,
with SUDs should receive thorough evaluation for comorbid psychiatric
conditions should be appropriately treated.
and interventions should provide or arrange for posttreatment aftercare.
Source. National Institute on Drug Abuse 2003National Institute on Drug Abuse 2003.
Knight et al. 2002Knight et al. 2002
6 items; is a brief screen for primary care professionals
Drug Use Screening Inventory—Adolescents (DUSI-A)
Tarter 1990Tarter 1990
159 items; documents the level of involvement with
a variety of drugs and quantifies severity of consequences associated
with drug use
Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers
Dembo et al. 1997Dembo et al. 1997
139 items; is designed to identify problems and potential
need for service in 10 functional areas, including substance use and
Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ)
Winters 1992Winters 1992
40 items; screens for the need for further assessment
of drug use disorders
Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI)
Feldstein and Miller 2007Feldstein and Miller 2007
81 items; has scales that include face-valid alcohol,
face-valid other drug, obvious attributes, subtle attributes, and defensiveness
Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale (AADIS)
Moberg 2003Moberg 2003
30 items; measures problem severity for alcohol, illicit
Drug Abuse Screening Test for Adolescents (DAST-A)
Martino et al. 2000Martino et al. 2000
27 items; predicts DSM-IV substance-related disorders
Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD)
Friedman and Utada 1989Friedman and Utada 1989
Provides severity ratings on multiple domains of functioning
Adolescent Problem Severity Index (APSI)
Metzger et al. 1991Metzger et al. 1991
Teen Addiction Severity Index
Kaminer et al. 1993Kaminer et al. 1993
Comprehensive Addiction Severity Inventory for Adolescents
Meyers et al. 1995Meyers et al. 1995
Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN)
Dennis 1998Dennis 1998
Documents SUD and other psychiatric diagnoses; placement
criteria; health, mental distress, and environment; and service
utilization outcomes (a brief version allows for screening and an
outcome version provides information about critical outcome variables)
Customary Drinking and Drug Use Record (CDDR)
Brown et al. 1998Brown et al. 1998
Contains current and lifetime measures of four alcohol-
and other drug-related domains
Adolescent Diagnostic Interview (ADI)
Winters and Henly 1993Winters and Henly 1993
Assesses symptoms associated with SUDs; obtains diagnoses,
substance use history, and psychosocial functioning
Modified Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)
Martin et al. 1995Martin et al. 1995
Is a semistructured interview to assess DSM-IV SUDs
Personal Experience Inventory (PEI)
Winters et al. 1996Winters et al. 1996
Is self-administered; has scales that measure substance
use, severity, psychosocial risk, and response distortion
Note. SUD = substance
(acute); 14–42 (chronic)
not usually tested: lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD); psilocybin;
methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA);
and other designer drugs. These drugs may be tested by chromatography