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All in this group carry risks of sedation,
cognitive dulling, elevation in serum prolactin, extrapyramidal
side effects, and tardive dyskinesia (TD).
Ross et al. 1978; Sallee et al. 1997; Shapiro et al. 1989
25%–30% reduction in symptoms.
Nicolson et al. 2005
Sedation. May have lower risk for adverse cognitive
39% reduction in symptoms.
Bruggeman et al. 2001; Gilbert et al. 2004; Ross et al. 1978; Sallee et al. 1997; Shapiro et al. 1989
Higher risk of QTc prolongation; less severe sedation
and extrapyramidal effects compared to haloperidol. Less weight
gain than risperidone (Gilbert et al. 2004).
22%–53% reduction in symptoms.
Bruggeman et al. 2001; Gaffney et al. 2002; Gilbert et al. 2004; Scahill et al. 2003
Risk of weight gain, 0.75–1 lb/wk;
prolactin elevation; possibly lower risk of TD compared to pimozide, haloperidol.
26%–56% reduction in symptoms.
Sallee et al. 2000
Particularly increased risk of QTc prolongation.
40% reduction in tics compared to 16% on placebo.
All display sedation and risk of hypotension.
Gaffney et al. 2002; Goetz et al. 1987; Leckman et al. 1991
Mixed. 20%–30% reduction
in tics reported. Gaffney et al. 2002 compared with risperidone
and found no difference in efficacy. Goetz et al. 1987 found
no difference from placebo.
Requires 0.05–0.1 mg doses given 3–5
Cummings et al. 2002; Scahill et al. 2001
Contradictory studies: Scahill et al. 2001 report
31% reduction; Cummings et al. 2002 reported
no effect on tics.
Twice a day divided dosing needed