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Benzodiazepines act on the specific sites of GABA type A receptors (GABAA) and produce hypnotic, myorelaxant, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. Benzodiazepines approved by the FDA for the treatment of insomnia in adults include temazepam, estazolam, quazepam, flurazepam, and triazolam. These medications vary mainly by elimination half-life, presence of active metabolite, and affinity for the benzodiazepine receptor subtype (Table 51–1).

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Table Reference Number
TABLE 51–1. Pharmacological characteristics of benzodiazepines
Table Reference Number
TABLE 51–2. Nonbenzodiazepine benzodiazepine receptor agonists

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