0
0

Chapter 58. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

Deborah C. Beidel, Ph.D., A.B.P.P.; Teresa Marino Carper, M.S.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623921.478352

Sections

Excerpt

Historically, psychiatric descriptions of childhood anxiety disorders date back to case reports in the early part of the twentieth century (e.g., Little Hans, Little Albert, Little Peter; see Beidel and Turner 2005). These descriptions, although differing in theoretical orientation, share a common theme—anxiety in children is not simply a "developmental phase." Rather, anxiety symptoms can be serious, distressful, and functionally impairing. Yet, despite their importance, the notion that children would outgrow their fears limited scientific investigation. Until the early 1990s, there were few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) addressing the pharmacological or psychological treatment of anxiety disorders in children. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest in treatment, primarily from pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral perspectives. In this chapter, we review cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for anxiety disorders.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Table Reference Number
TABLE 58–1. Randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
Table Reference Number
TABLE 58–2. Hierarchy for a child with selective mutism

References

Alfano C, Beidel DC, Turner SM: Cognition in childhood anxiety: conceptual, methodological, and developmental issues. Clin Psychol Rev 22:1209–1238, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Barrett PM: Evaluation of cognitive-behavioral group treatments for childhood anxiety disorders. J Clin Child Psychol 27:459–468, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Barrett PM, Rapee RM, Dadds MR, et al: Family enhancement of cognitive style in anxious and aggressive children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 24:187–203, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Barrett PM, Duffy AL, Dadds MR, et al: Cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders in children: long-term (6-year) follow-up. J Consult Clin Psychol 69:135–141, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Barrett PM, Farrell C, Dadds MR, et al: Cognitive-behavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: long-term follow-up and predictors of outcome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:1005–1014, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Beidel DC, Turner SM: Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Guide to Research and Treatment. New York, Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group, 2005
 
Beidel DC, Turner SM, Morris TL: A new inventory to assess childhood social anxiety and phobia: the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children. Psychol Assess 7:73–79, 1995
 
Beidel DC, Turner SM, Morris TL: Behavioral treatment of childhood social phobia. J Consult Clin Psychol 68:1072–1080, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Beidel DC, Turner SM, Young BJ: Social effectiveness therapy for children: five years later. Behav Ther 37:416–425, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Beidel DC, Turner SM, Sallee FR, et al: SET-C vs fluoxetine in the treatment of childhood social phobia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:1622–1632, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Berman SL, Weems CF, Silverman WK, et al: Predictors of outcome in exposure-based cognitive and behavioral treatments for phobic and anxiety disorders in children. Behav Ther 31:713–731, 2000
 
Bernstein GA, Borchardt C, Perwien AR: Imipramine plus cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of school refusal. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:276–283, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Birmaher B, Brent DA, Chiappetta L, et al: Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): a replication study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:1230–1236, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Dadds MR, Spence SH, Holland DE, et al: Prevention and early intervention for anxiety disorders: a controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 65:627–635, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Durlak J, Fuhrman T, Lampman C: Effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy for maladapting children: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 110:204–214, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Ferrell C, Beidel DC, Turner SM: Assessment and treatment of socially phobic children: a cross cultural comparison. J Clin Child Psychol 33:260–268, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Flannery-Schroeder EC, Kendall PC: Group and individual cognitive-behavioral treatments for youth with anxiety disorders: a randomized clinical trial. Cognit Ther Res 24:251–278, 2000
 
Grayson JB, Foa EB, Steketee G: Habituation during exposure treatment: distraction vs attention-focusing. Behav Res Ther 20:323–328, 1982
[PubMed]
 
Greenberg PE, Sisitsky T, Kessler RC, et al: The economic burden of anxiety disorders in the 1990s. J Clin Psychiatry 60:427–435, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Hayward C, Varady S, Albano AM, et al: Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia in female adolescents: results of a pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:721–726, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Kendall PC: Treating anxiety disorders in children: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Child Psychol 62:100–110, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Kendall PC, Flannery-Schroeder E, Panichelli-Mindel SM: Therapy with youths with anxiety disorders: a second randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 65:366–380, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Kendall PC, Safford S, Flannery-Schroeder E, et al: Child anxiety treatment: outcomes in adolescence and impact on substance use and depression at 7.4 year follow-up. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 72:276–287, 2004
[PubMed]
 
La Greca AM, Lopez N: Social anxiety among adolescents: linkages with peer relations and friendships. J Abnorm Child Psychol 26:83–94, 1998
 
La Greca AM, Stone WL: Social Anxiety Scale for Children–Revised: factor structure and concurrent validity. J Clin Child Psychol 22:17–27, 1993
 
Lang PJ, Levin DN, Miller GA: Fear behavior, fear imagery, and the psychophysiology of emotion: the problem of affective response integration. J Abnorm Psychol 92:276–306, 1983
[PubMed]
 
Last CG, Hansen C, Franco N: Cognitive-behavioral treatment of school phobia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:404–411, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Manassis K, Mendlowitz SL, Scapillato D, et al: Group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for child anxiety disorders: a randomized trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1423–1430, 2002
[PubMed]
 
March JS, Parker JDA, Sullivan K, et al: The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC): factor structure, reliability, and validity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:554–565, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Mowrer OH: On the dual nature of learning: a reinterpretation of "conditioning" and "problem solving." Harv Educ Rev 17:102–148, 1947
 
Ollendick TH: Reliability and validity of the Revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-R). Behav Res Ther 21:685–692, 1983
[PubMed]
 
Ollendick TH, Matson JL, Helsel WJ: Fears in children and adolescents: normative data. Behav Res Ther 23:465–467, 1985
[PubMed]
 
Pina AA, Silverman WK, Fuentes RM, et al: Exposure-based cognitive-behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders: treatment effects and maintenance for Hispanic/Latino relative to European-American youths. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:1179–1187, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Shortt AL, Barrett PM, Fox TL: Evaluating the FRIENDS program: a cognitive-behavioral group treatment for anxious children and their parents. J Clin Child Psychol 30:525–535, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Silverman WK, Albano AM: The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS-C/P). San Antonio, TX, Psychological Corporation, 1996
 
Silverman WK, Kurtines WM: Anxiety and Phobic Disorders: A Pragmatic Approach. New York, Plenum, 1996
 
Silverman WK, Kurtines WM, Ginsburg GS, et al: Contingency management, self-control, and education support in the treatment of childhood phobic disorders: a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 67:675–687, 1999a
 
Silverman WK, Kurtines WM, Ginsburg GS, et al: Treating anxiety disorders in children with group cognitive-behavioral therapy: a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 67:995–1003, 1999b
 
Southam-Gerow MA, Kendall PC, Weersing VR: Examining outcome variability: correlates of treatment response in a child and adolescent anxiety clinic. J Clin Child Psychol 30:422–436, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Spence SH, Donovan C, Brechman-Toussain M: The treatment of childhood social phobia: the effectiveness of a social skills training-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention, with and without parental involvement. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41:713–726, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Turner SM, Beidel DC, Roberson-Nay R, et al: Parenting behaviors in parents with anxiety disorders. Behav Res Ther 41:541–554, 2003
[PubMed]
 
+

CME Activity

Add a subscription to complete this activity and earn CME credit.
Sample questions:
1.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be efficacious in treating which of the following childhood disorders?
2.
There is widespread agreement that the key ingredient in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the behavioral intervention known as
3.
A parent comes to you to express her concern about her 10-year-old daughter, Jackie, who is afraid of dogs and runs away whenever she sees one. You schedule a session with Jackie and her mother and arrange to have a well-behaved dog present. Although Jackie is highly fearful at first, you encourage her to remain in the office until her anxiety diminishes. You are employing a model of treatment based on
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 31.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 36.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 1.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 2.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 3.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Dysregulation, and Psychiatric Comorbidities. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2014;():.doi:10.1097/HRP.0000000000000014.
A longitudinal perspective on childhood adversities and onset risk of various psychiatric disorders. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014;():.doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0540-0.
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation