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The youth and family must be full and active partners
at every level and in every activity of the wraparound process.
They must have a voice.
The wraparound approach must be a team-driven process
involving the family, child, natural supports, agencies, and community
services working together to develop, implement, and evaluate the
Wraparound services must be located in the community,
with all efforts toward serving the identified youth in community,
residential, and school settings.
The process must be culturally competent, building
on the unique values, preferences, and strengths of children and
families and their communities.
Services and supports must be individualized and built
on strengths, and must meet the needs of children and families across
life domains to promote success, safety, and permanence in home,
school, and community.
Wraparound plans must include a balance of formal services
and informal community and family supports.
There must be an unconditional commitment to serve
children and their families.
Plans of care should be developed and implemented based
on an interagency, community-based collaborative process.
Wraparound child and family teams must have flexible
approaches and adequate and flexible funding.
Outcomes must be determined and measured for the system,
for the program, and for the individual child and family.
Adapted from Burns and Goldman 1999Burns and Goldman 1999.
Alaska Youth Initiative (AYI)
Early wraparound system. Alaska was a CASSP-designated
state and had received funds from NIMH to implement SOCs for children.
Based on Kaleidoscope programs in Chicago. Kaleidoscope had the
principle of unconditional care and individualized services in the
community. AYI initially served out-of-state returnees from residential
Washington Youth Initiative
Replication of AYI. For out-of-state children and in-state
children in long-term residential treatment centers.
Replication of AYI. For children at risk of out-of-home
Example of Medicaid managed care behavioral carve-out.
For children under court order in juvenile justice or child protective services.
La Grange, IL, school district
Example of school-based wraparound program with goal
of having child in less restrictive school settings by improving
collaboration between schools and families.
Program UPLIFT (Uniting Partners to Link and Invest
in Families Today)
Santa Clara County, California
Example of wraparound provided through private agency.
Serves children in lieu of residential placement.
Fostering Individualized Assistance Program
Designed to improve permanency outcomes of children
placed in foster care.
Note. CASSP = Child
and Adolescent Service System Program; NIMH =National Institute
of Mental Health.
from Goldman and Faw 1999Goldman and Faw 1999; VanDenBerg 1999VanDenBerg 1999.
Community team (informal and formal stakeholders)
Agencies, public and private
Provide services or support to the family according
to the care plan.
Identification and referral
"Subcommittee" of a community team
To determine which families will receive services,
often decided by consensus vote. Test scores have been used.
Will vary by wraparound system
May include a large referral pool or only those children who
are in state custody or at risk of out-of-home placement
Work collaboratively with wraparound teams and help
identify children suited for the wraparound process.
Resource coordinator (or case manager or individualized
An agency brokers the services and is responsible for
hiring resource coordinators who have bachelor's level
or higher education
The agency oversees the wraparound process and manages flexible
Identify key individuals in child and family's
Perform strength-based assessment.
Conduct child and family team meetings.
Help family team create individualized service plan.
Evaluate helpfulness of current services.
Develop crisis plan.
Arrange services not currently being used or available.
Manage flexible funds.
Provide direct services.
Arrange for transition.
Parent and child
Parent and child must be actively engaged and listened
to, and once a plan is co-constructed with them, the parent and child
agree to the plan and commit to it.
Resource coordinator with family
Informal or formal assessment of strengths to determine
which services will be tailored.
Child and family team
Child, family, extended family, friends, professionals, neighbors
(usually consisting of 4–10 members)
No more than half the team should be professionals
to encourage family ownership of the process.
Review strengths and develop individualized service
Review of major life domains
Child may or may not be present, depending on developmental
and emotional considerations
Examination of the following areas:
Family—structure, needs, function
Emotional and psychological
Creating a service plan
Resource coordinator with child and family team
Life domains are prioritized according to the most
need. These are often voted on, and the family has ultimate say
in deciding what these are.
Brainstorming of ideas to meet the needs.
Ideal plan focuses on informal supports as these are longer
lasting than formal supports, which will end.
Detailed crisis plan with action steps for each team member
Review of plan
Review plan for consistency with individual and community
values and consider safety issues.
Review budget to determine how needs can be met.
If team disagrees with plan, the plan is not stopped, but
it is sent back for revision to the child and family team.
Implementation of plan
Coordinator and child and family team
Coordinator implements the plan and meets with the
child and family team every few weeks initially and then at least
every quarter thereafter.
Major changes are undertaken only with the input of the child
and family team.
Resource coordinator and others
Normally, quantitative measures of behavioral change,
reduction in drug use, school attendance, and out-of-home placement
are used along with qualitative feedback from families.
Adapted from VanDenBerg and Grealish 1996VanDenBerg and Grealish 1996.
Home life: Family, friends,
family friends, grandparents, extended family, foster care agency,
independent living center, group home, respite care
School: Teacher, special
education teacher, paraprofessional aide, guidance counselor, school
social worker, school psychologist, principal, peer groups, parent-teacher
organization and other parent groups, sports activities, school
programs and groups, student mentors, student tutors, alternative
education, therapeutic day schools, general equivalency diploma
After-school programs: Community
centers, recreation centers, sports leagues, any organized leisure activities
Mental health and allied services: Social
worker, psychologist, psychiatrist, nurse, art therapist, recreation therapist,
therapeutic mentor, social skills training, individual therapy,
group therapy, family therapy, in-home services, intensive outpatient
services, partial hospital, speech and language therapist, occupational therapist
Legal: Probation officer,
attorney, guardian ad-litem, case manager
and job training agencies, job internships, employment
Spiritual: Church, mosque,
pastors, ministers, imams, meditation, members of the congregation
alternative medicine and other approaches
Economic: Flexible funding