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Examining the evidence
Recognizing mood shifts
Applying reattribution techniques
Imagery and role-play exercises
Identifying cognitive errors
Checklists for automatic thoughts
Using thought change records
from Wright JH, Beck AT, Thase ME: "Cognitive Therapy," in The American
Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry, 5th
Edition. Edited by Hales RE, Yudofsky SC, Gabbard GO. Washington,
DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2008, pp. 1211–1256.
Used with permission.
Selective abstraction (sometimes termed mental filter)
Drawing a conclusion based on only a small portion
of the available data
Coming to a conclusion without adequate supporting
evidence or despite contradictory evidence
Absolutistic thinking (all-or-nothing thinking)
Categorizing oneself or personal experiences into rigid
dichotomies (e.g., all good or all bad, perfect or completely flawed,
success or total failure)
Magnification and minimization
Over- or undervaluing the significance of a personal
attribute, a life event, or a future possibility
Linking external occurrences to oneself (e.g., taking
blame, assuming responsibility, criticizing oneself) when little
or no basis exists for making these associations
Predicting the worst possible outcome while ignoring
more likely eventualities
from Beck et al. 1979Beck et al. 1979, p. 14.
Using questioning methodsa
Using imagery and role-play
Identifying repetitive patterns of automatic thoughts
Listing advantages and disadvantages
Using a schema checklist
Using cognitive rehearsal
the downward arrow technique.