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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most commonly treated with behavioral and cognitive techniques (Deacon and Abramowitz 2004). The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE; formerly National Institute for Clinical Excellence) in the United Kingdom has developed a set of guidelines for the treatment and management of PTSD (National Institute for Clinical Excellence 2005). As part of the guideline development process, they conducted a meticulous meta-analytic review of psychological and pharmacological treatments for PTSD. For the purposes of their review, they divided the psychotherapies into four categories: 1) trauma-focused CBT (e.g., exposure, biofeedback-assisted desensitization treatment, and cognitive reprocessing therapy); 2) eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, stress management, and relaxation (stress inoculation training and progressive muscle relaxation); 3) other therapies (supportive therapy/nondirective counseling, psychodynamic therapies, and hypnotherapy); and 4) group CBT. All studies included in the meta-analysis were RCTs.

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