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Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of addictions emphasizes the role of thinking in determining both craving for drugs and the ensuing drug seeking and use. Put simply, the therapy is based on the findings that thoughtsas well as people and situations cause the feelings and behaviors associated with relapse, and in turn, it is possible with therapy to change thoughts about and reactions to relapse-provoking situations. There are several approaches to, or variations on, CBT, including rational emotive behavior therapy, rational behavior therapy, rational living therapy, cognitive therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy. In the addiction field, most of the versions studied have been adapted from Marlatt and Gordon's (1985) relapse prevention treatment for problem drinking. As studied in most research trials, the therapy is usually individual (but also group), delivered in 8–16 weekly sessions. Change in thinking about and reactions to relapse-provoking situations requires practice and time. Thus, one of the hallmarks of CBT is homework assignments to provide practice in the cognitive techniques learned during the formal sessions.

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