Subscribe Now/Learn More
PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the
DSM-5 library, books,
journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists
and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research,
and professional development.
Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org
or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).
The reinforcing efficacy of cocaine is correlated with its
affinity at dopamine, but not serotonin or norepinephrine transporters
(Bergman et al. 1989Bergman et al. 1989; Ritz et al. 1987).Ritz et al. 1987).
The amount of cocaine self-administered is positively correlated
with extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens in rats
or monkeys (see Bari and Pierce 2005Bari and Pierce 2005).
Fluctuations in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens
predict response for cocaine (Wise et al. 1995Wise et al. 1995).
Dopamine D1 or D2 antagonists
or a neurochemical depletion of dopamine decreases the reinforcing effects
of cocaine and amphetamine (see Mello and Negus 1996Mello and Negus 1996).
The binding affinity of stimulants at the dopamine transporter
is correlated with their potency at maintaining self-administration
(Lile et al. 2003Lile et al. 2003; Wilcox et al. 1999Wilcox et al. 1999).
The magnitude of the self-reported high correlates
with the occupancy of the dopamine transporter by cocaine, and the
time course for these ratings parallels cocaine concentrations in
the striatum (Volkow et al. 1997Volkow et al. 1997).
The magnitude of the self-reported high from amphetamine
correlates with the magnitude of dopamine release (Abi-Dargham et al. 2003Abi-Dargham et al. 2003).