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The use of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) must be approached differently from other forms of substance abuse because AAS do not produce an immediate reward or "high" in the manner of conventional drugs of abuse and are linked to body dysmorphic disorder.

AAS users rarely see their drug use as pathological, rarely seek treatment, and may have contempt for physicians.

AAS users often display a history of abuse of or dependence upon other drugs, especially opioids.

Some individuals experience hypomanic or manic symptoms during AAS exposure and depressive symptoms during AAS withdrawal.

AAS may produce a well-documented dependence syndrome for which an animal model exists.

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