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A number of follow-up studies involving patients treated in hospital programs have yielded impressive success rates. For example, Stinchfield and Owen (1998) conducted 1-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up questionnaire assessments of patients who had been treated at Hazelden Foundation (a well-known Minnesota Model treatment center). These researchers found that 59% of patients who completed the questionnaires (approximately 70% of the total sample) were abstinent from drugs and alcohol at the time of the 6-month assessment, and 53% of respondents were abstinent 1 year after discharge (Stinchfield and Owen 1998). Wallace et al. (1988) presented similarly favorable results among patients treated at Edgehill Newport, a facility similar to Hazelden that has since closed. They found that 57% of patients interviewed had been continuously abstinent from alcohol and drugs after discharge for 6 months. In a 4-year follow-up of inpatients treated at Carrier Clinic, approximately half of the study sample had favorable outcomes (Pettinati et al. 1982). However, fluctuations in outcome status were common, and only one-fourth of patients were continuously abstinent for all 4 years. In a 1-year follow-up of patients treated in an integrated program for patients with SUDs and co-occurring psychiatric disorders, Moggi et al. (2002) described improvement in levels of substance use and severity of psychiatric symptoms; the 1-year abstinence rate in this sample was 25%. This lower abstinence rate may in part reflect a more severe case mix, although programmatic factors cannot be excluded (Moggi et al. 2002).

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