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Despite data indicating high rates of prescription drug abuse, a major limitation of the existing research is that the terms misuse, abuse, dependence, and addiction are used in idiosyncratic ways. To make the nomenclature consistent, a minimum guideline would be for each researcher and author to specify their definitions clearly. In this chapter, abuse is defined as any intentional use of opioids outside of a physician's prescription for a bona fide medical condition, excluding accidental misuse. Note that our use of the term abuse is distinct from the abuse diagnosis specified in DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000). However, addiction in this chapter is synonymous with the standard DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of dependence, which is a psychiatric syndrome defined as including compulsive use, impaired control, tolerance, withdrawal, and continued use despite physical and psychological problems caused or exacerbated by use (American Psychiatric Association 2000).

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FIGURE 42–1. Past-year nonmedical use of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs among persons age 12 years or older, by drug type: percentages, 2002–2004.aIncludes methamphetamine.Source. Reprinted from Colliver JD, Kroutil LA, Dai L, et al: Misuse of Prescription Drugs: Data From the 2002, 2003, and 2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, MD, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, 2006.

FIGURE 42–2. Past-year nonmedical use of any prescription psychotherapeutic drug, by race/ethnicity: annual averages based on 2002–2004.Source. Reprinted from Colliver JD, Kroutil LA, Dai L, et al: Misuse of Prescription Drugs: Data From the 2002, 2003, and 2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, MD, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, 2006.
Table Reference Number
TABLE 42–1. Past-year prevalence of illicit use of drugs among twelfth graders in the United States, 2006
Table Reference Number
TABLE 42–2. Prescription drugs with potential for abuse

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