0
1

The following coding system is used to indicate the nature of the supporting evidence in the references:

  • [A] Double-blind, randomized clinical trial. A study of an intervention in which subjects are prospectively followed over time; there are treatment and control groups; subjects are randomly assigned to the two groups; both the subjects and the investigators are blind to the assignments.

  • [A–] Randomized clinical trial. Same as above but not double-blind.

  • [B] Clinical trial. A prospective study in which an intervention is made and the results of that intervention are tracked longitudinally; study does not meet standards for a randomized clinical trial.

  • [C] Cohort or longitudinal study. A study in which subjects are prospectively followed over time without any specific intervention.

  • [D] Case–control study. A study in which a group of patients is identified in the present and information about them is pursued retrospectively or backward in time.

  • [E] Review with secondary data analysis. A structured analytic review of existing data, e.g., a meta-analysis or a decision analysis.

  • [F] Review. A qualitative review and discussion of previously published literature without a quantitative synthesis of the data.

  • [G] Other. Textbooks, expert opinion, case reports, and other reports not included above.

1. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed, revised (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000 [G]

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[PubMed]

3. Abramowitz JS, Schwartz SA, Moore KM, Luenzmann KR: Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in pregnancy and the puerperium: a review of the literature. J Anxiety Disord 2003; 17:461–478 [F]
[PubMed]

4. Holzer JC, Goodman WK, McDougle CJ, Baer L, Boyarsky BK, Leckman JF, Price LH: Obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without a chronic tic disorder. A comparison of symptoms in 70 patients. Br J Psychiatry 1994; 164:469–473 [G]
[PubMed]

5. Mansueto CS, Keuler DJ: Tic or compulsion? It's Tourettic OCD. Behav Modif 2005; 29:784–799 [G]
[PubMed]

6. Miguel EC, do Rosario-Campos MC, Prado HS, do Valle R, Rauch SL, Coffey BJ, Baer L, Savage CR, O'Sullivan RL, Jenike MA, Leckman JF: Sensory phenomena in obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette's disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61:150–156 [G]
[PubMed]

7. Tenney NH, Schotte CK, Denys DA, van Megen HJ, Westenberg HG: Assessment of DSM-IV personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder: comparison of clinical diagnosis, self-report questionnaire, and semi-structured interview. J Personal Disord 2003; 17:550–561 [G]
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

9. Nestadt G, Riddle M: Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: personality or disorder? in Personality Disorders. Edited by Maj M, Akiskal HS, Mezzich JE, Okasha A. Chichester, West Sussex, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, pp 457–459 [G]

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[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

12. Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Mazure C, Delgado P, Heninger GR, Charney DS: The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, II: validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989; 46:1012–1016 [G]
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

14. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL: The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric Annals 2002; 32:1–7 [G]

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[PubMed]

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25. American Psychiatric Association: Practice guideline for the assessment and treatment of patients with suicidal behaviors. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160:1–60 [G]

26. American Psychiatric Association: Practice guideline for the psychiatric evaluation of adults, 2nd ed. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163(suppl):3–36 [G]

27. Grabe HJ, Meyer C, Hapke U, Rumpf HJ, Freyberger HJ, Dilling H, John U: Lifetime-comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and subclinical obsessive-compulsive disorder in Northern Germany. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001; 251:130–135 [G]
[PubMed]

28. Overbeek T, Schruers K, Vermetten E, Griez E: Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression: prevalence, symptom severity, and treatment effect. J Clin Psychiatry 2002; 63:1106–1112 [D]
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29. Perugi G, Toni C, Frare F, Travierso MC, Hantouche E, Akiskal HS: Obsessive-compulsive-bipolar comorbidity: a systematic exploration of clinical features and treatment outcome. J Clin Psychiatry 2002; 63:1129–1134 [G]
[PubMed]

30. Freeman MP, Freeman SA, McElroy SL: The comorbidity of bipolar and anxiety disorders: prevalence, psychobiology, and treatment issues. J Affect Disord 2002; 68:1–23 [F]
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31. LaSalle VH, Cromer KR, Nelson KN, Kazuba D, Justement L, Murphy DL: Diagnostic interview assessed neuropsychiatric disorder comorbidity in 334 individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depress Anxiety 2004; 19:163–173 [G]
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32. Diniz JB, Rosario-Campos MC, Shavitt RG, Curi M, Hounie AG, Brotto SA, Miguel EC: Impact of age at onset and duration of illness on the expression of comorbidities in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 65:22–27 [G]
[PubMed]

33. Koran LM: Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in Adults: A Comprehensive Clinical Guide. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 1999 [G]

34. Leckman JF, Riddle MA, Hardin MT, Ort SI, Swartz KL, Stevenson J, Cohen DJ: The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: initial testing of a clinician-rated scale of tic severity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1989; 28:566–573 [G]
[PubMed]

35. Rubenstein CS, Pigott TA, L'Heureux F, Hill JL, Murphy DL: A preliminary investigation of the lifetime prevalence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1992; 53:309–314 [G]
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36. Matsunaga H, Kiriike N, Miyata A, Iwasaki Y, Matsui T, Fujimoto K, Kasai S, Kaye WH: Prevalence and symptomatology of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder among bulimic patients. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999; 53:661–666 [G]
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37. Thiel A, Broocks A, Ohlmeier M, Jacoby GE, Schussler G: Obsessive-compulsive disorder among patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152:72–75 [G]
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38. O'Brien KM, Vincent NK: Psychiatric comorbidity in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: nature, prevalence, and causal relationships. Clin Psychol Rev 2003; 23:57–74 [F]
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39. Angst J, Gamma A, Endrass J, Hantouche E, Goodwin R, Ajdacic V, Eich D, Rossler W: Obsessive-compulsive syndromes and disorders: significance of comorbidity with bipolar and anxiety syndromes. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005; 255:65–71 [G]
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40. Geller DA, Biederman J, Griffin S, Jones J, Lefkowitz TR: Comorbidity of juvenile obsessive-compulsive disorder with disruptive behavior disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996; 35:1637–1646 [G]
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41. Conners CK: Clinical use of rating scales in diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Clin North Am 1999; 46:857–870, vi [G]

42. Ward MF, Wender PH, Reimherr FW: The Wender Utah Rating Scale: an aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150:885–890 [G]
[PubMed]

43. McCann BS, Roy-Byrne P: Screening and diagnostic utility of self-report attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scales in adults. Compr Psychiatry 2004; 45:175–183 [G]
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44. Rauch SL, Renshaw PF: Clinical neuroimaging in psychiatry. Harv Rev Psychiatry 1995; 2:297–312 [F]
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45. Winsberg ME, Cassic KS, Koran LM: Hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a report of 20 cases. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60:591-597 [G]

46. Skoog G, Skoog I: A 40-year follow-up of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56:121–127 [C]
[PubMed]

47. Drummond LM: The treatment of severe, chronic, resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. An evaluation of an in-patient programme using behavioural psychotherapy in combination with other treatments. Br J Psychiatry 1993; 163:223–229 [B]
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48. Stewart SE, Stack DE, Farrell C, Pauls DL, Jenike MA: Effectiveness of intensive residential treatment (IRT) for severe, refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Psychiatr Res 2005; 39:603–609 [B]
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49. Bystritsky A, Munford PR, Rosen RM, Martin KM, Vapnik T, Gorbis EE, Wolson RC: A preliminary study of partial hospital management of severe obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatr Serv 1996; 47:170–174 [B]
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50. Leo RJ, Kuldip J, Bakhai YD: Nonadherence with psychopharmacologic treatment among psychiatric patients. Primary Psychiatry 2005; 12(June):33–39 [G]

51. Bourgeois JA: Compliance with psychiatric treatment in primary care: review and strategies. Primary Psychiatry 2005; 12(June):40–47 [F]

52. Miller WR, Rollnick S, Conforti K: Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change, 2nd ed. New York, Guilford Press, 2002 [G]

53. Renshaw KD, Steketee G, Chambless DL: Involving family members in the treatment of OCD. Cogn Behav Ther 2005; 34:164–175 [F]
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54. Hollander E, Wong CM: Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1995; 56(suppl 4):3–6 [G]

55. McElroy SL, Phillips KA, Keck PE Jr: Obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1994; 55(October, suppl):33–51 [G]

56. US Congress: Americans With Disabilities Act: Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. 42 USC 12101–12213, 1990 [G]

57. Meyer V: Modification of expectations in cases with obsessional rituals. Behav Res Ther 1966; 4:273–280 [G]
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58. Abramowitz JS: Does cognitive-behavioral therapy cure obsessive-compulsive disorder? A meta-analytic evaluation of clinical significance. Behavior Therapy 1998; 29:355 [E]

59. Eddy KT, Dutra L, Bradley R, Westen D: A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clin Psychol Rev 2004; 24:1011–1030 [E]
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60. Fisher PL, Wells A: How effective are cognitive and behavioral treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder? A clinical significance analysis. Behav Res Ther 2005; 43:1543–1558 [E]
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61. van Balkom AJ, de Haan E, van Oppen P, Spinhoven P, Hoogduin KA, van Dyck R: Cognitive and behavioral therapies alone versus in combination with fluvoxamine in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 1998; 186:492–499 [A–]

62. Cottraux J, Note I, Yao SN, Lafont S, Note B, Mollard E, Bouvard M, Sauteraud A, Bourgeois M, Dartigues JF: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy versus intensive behavior therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychother Psychosom 2001; 70:288–297 [A–]

63. Whittal ML, Thordarson DS, McLean PD: Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: cognitive behavior therapy vs exposure and response prevention. Behav Res Ther 2005; 43:1559–1576 [A–]

64. Freeston MH, Rheaume J, Ladouceur R: Correcting faulty appraisals of obsessional thoughts. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34:433–446 [G]
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65. Cottraux J, Bouvard MA, Milliery M: Combining pharmacotherapy with cognitive-behavioral interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Cogn Behav Ther 2005; 34:185–192 [F]
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66. Hembree EA, Riggs DS, Kozak MJ, Franklin ME, Foa EB: Long-term efficacy of exposure and ritual prevention therapy and serotonergic medications for obsessive-compulsive disorder. CNS Spectr 2003; 8:363–371, 381 [B]

67. Simpson HB, Liebowitz MR, Foa EB, Kozak MJ, Schmidt AB, Rowan V, Petkova E, Kjernisted K, Huppert JD, Franklin ME, Davies SO, Campeas R: Post-treatment effects of exposure therapy and clomipramine in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depress Anxiety 2004; 19:225–233 [B]
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68. Kordon A, Kahl KG, Broocks A, Voderholzer U, Rasche-Rauchle H, Hohagen F: Clinical outcome in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder after discontinuation of SRI treatment: results from a two-year follow-up. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005; 255:48–50 [D]
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69. Abramowitz JS: Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a quantitative review. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997; 65:44–52 [E]
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70. Ackerman DL, Greenland S: Multivariate meta-analysis of controlled drug studies for obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2002; 22:309–317 [E]
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71. Denys D, Burger H, van Megen H, de Geus F, Westenberg H: A score for predicting response to pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2003; 18:315–322 [A]
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72. Maina G, Albert U, Salvi V, Bogetto F: Weight gain during long-term treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a prospective comparison between serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 65:1365–1371 [B]
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73. Ciraulo DA: Drug Interactions in Psychiatry, 3rd ed. Baltimore, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005 [G]

74. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Harmatz JS, Shader RI: Drug interactions with newer antidepressants: role of human cytochromes P450. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59(suppl 15):19–27 [F]

75. Richelson E: Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of new antidepressants: a review of the effects on the metabolism of other drugs. Mayo Clin Proc 1997; 72:835–847 [G]
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76. Sandson NB, Armstrong SC, Cozza KL: An overview of psychotropic drug-drug interactions. Psychosomatics 2005; 46:464–494 [F] 1011859
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77. Gillman PK: The serotonin syndrome and its treatment. J Psychopharmacol 1999; 13:100–109 [F]
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78. Keck PE Jr, Arnold LM: The serotonin syndrome. Psychiatric Annals 2000; 30:333–343 [G]

79. Stein DJ, Montgomery SA, Kasper S, Tanghoj P: Predictors of response to pharmacotherapy with citalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2001; 16:357–361 [G]
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80. Hollander E, Allen A, Steiner M, Wheadon DE, Oakes R, Burnham DB: Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64:1113–1121 [A]
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81. Tollefson GD, Birkett M, Koran L, Genduso L: Continuation treatment of OCD: double-blind and open-label experience with fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry 1994; 55(October suppl):69–76 [A/B]

82. Greist J, Chouinard G, DuBoff E, Halaris A, Kim SW, Koran L, Liebowitz M, Lydiard RB, Rasmussen S, White K, Sikes C: Double-blind parallel comparison of three doses of sertraline and placebo in outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995; 52:289–295 [A]
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83. Tollefson GD, Rampey AH Jr, Potvin JH, Jenike MA, Rush AJ, Kominguez RA, Koran LM, Shear MK, Goodman W, Genduso LA: A multicenter investigation of fixed-dose fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51:559–567 [A]
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84. Ninan PT, Koran LM, Kiev A, Davidson JR, Rasmussen SA, Zajecka JM, Robinson DG, Crits-Christoph P, Mandel FS, Austin C: High-dose sertraline strategy for nonresponders to acute treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a multicenter double-blind trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67:15–22 [A]
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85. Koran LM, Aboujaoude E, Ward H, Shapira NA, Sallee FR, Gamel N, Elliott M: Pulse-loaded intravenous clomipramine in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2006; 26:79–83 [A]
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86. Koran LM, Cain JW, Dominguez RA, Rush AJ, Thiemann S: Are fluoxetine plasma levels related to outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder? Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153:1450–1454 [G]
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87. Goodman WK, Ward H, Kablinger A, Murphy T: Fluvoxamine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and related conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58(suppl 5):32–49 [F]

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90. Flament MF, Bisserbe JC: Pharmacologic treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: comparative studies. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58(suppl 12):18–22 [F]

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92. Marcy TR, Britton ML: Antidepressant-induced sweating. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39:748–752 [G]
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93. Pierre JM, Guze BH: Benztropine for venlafaxine-induced night sweats. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20:269 [G]
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94. Feder R: Clonidine treatment of excessive sweating. J Clin Psychiatry 1995; 56:35 [G]
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95. Ashton AK, Weinstein WL: Cyproheptadine for drug-induced sweating. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159:874–875 [G] 1000545
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97. Clayton AH, Pradko JF, Croft HA, Montano CB, Leadbetter RA, Bolden-Watson C, Bass KI, Donahue RM, Jamerson BD, Metz A: Prevalence of sexual dysfunction among newer antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry 2002; 63:357–366 [G]
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98. Rothschild AJ: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction: efficacy of a drug holiday. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152:1514–1516 [B]
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99. Zajecka J: Strategies for the treatment of antidepressant-related sexual dysfunction. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62(suppl 3):35–43 [G]

100. Worthington JJ, III, Simon NM, Korbly NB, Perlis RH, Pollack MH: Ropinirole for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2002; 17:307–310 [B]
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101. Clayton AH, Warnock JK, Kornstein SG, Pinkerton R, Sheldon-Keller A, McGarvey EL: A placebo-controlled trial of bupropion SR as an antidote for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction. J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 65:62–67 [A]
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107. Gunnell D, Saperia J, Ashby D: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and suicide in adults: meta-analysis of drug company data from placebo controlled, randomised controlled trials submitted to the MHRA's safety review. BMJ 2005; 330:385 [E]
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109. Baldessarini RJ, Pompili M, Tondo L: Suicidal risk in antidepressant drug trials. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63:246–248 [G]
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110. Martinez C, Rietbrock S, Wise L, Ashby D, Chick J, Moseley J, Evans S, Gunnell D: Antidepressant treatment and the risk of fatal and non-fatal self harm in first episode depression: nested case-control study. BMJ 2005; 330:389 [C]
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111. Simon GE, Savarino J, Operskalski B, Wang PS: Suicide risk during antidepressant treatment. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163:41–47 [G] 1012276
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112. Bauer MS, Wisniewski SR, Marangell LB, Chessick CA, Allen MH, Dennehy EB, Miklowitz DJ, Thase ME, Sachs GS: Are antidepressants associated with new-onset suicidality in bipolar disorder? A prospective study of participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67:48–55 [B]
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113. Didham RC, McConnell DW, Blair HJ, Reith DM: Suicide and self-harm following prescription of SSRIs and other antidepressants: confounding by indication. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60:519–525 [C]
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114. Mann JJ, Emslie G, Baldessarini RJ, Beardslee W, Fawcett JA, Goodwin FK, Leon AC, Meltzer HY, Ryan ND, Shaffer D, Wagner KD: ACNP Task Force Report on SSRIs and Suicidal Behavior in Youth. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006; 31:473–492 [G]
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115. Fochtmann LJ, Gelenberg AJ: Guideline watch: practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder, 2nd ed. FOCUS 2005; 3:34–42 [G]

116. Weinrieb RM, Auriacombe M, Lynch KG, Lewis JD: Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and the risk of bleeding. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2005; 4:337–344 [F]
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117. Tamam L, Ozpoyraz N: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation syndrome: a review. Adv Ther 2002; 19:17–26 [F]
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118. Zajecka J, Tracy KA, Mitchell S: Discontinuation symptoms after treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a literature review. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58:291–297 [F]
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119. Gabbard GO: Psychodynamic Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 4th ed. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2005 [G]

120. Huppert JD, Franklin ME: Cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: an update. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2005; 7:268–273 [F]
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121. Freeston MH, Ladouceur R, Gagnon F, Thibodeau N, Rheaume J, Letarte H, Bujold A: Cognitive-behavioral treatment of obsessive thoughts: a controlled study. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997; 65:405–413 [A–]

122. Vogel PA, Stiles TC, Gotestam KG: Adding cognitive therapy elements to exposure therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: a controlled study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2004; 32:275–290 [A–]

123. Foa EB, Liebowitz MR, Kozak MJ, Davies S, Campeas R, Franklin ME, Huppert JD, Kjernisted K, Rowan V, Schmidt AB, Simpson HB, Tu X: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of exposure and ritual prevention, clomipramine, and their combination in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162:151–161 [A–]

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