0
1

The following coding system is used to indicate the nature of the supporting evidence in the references:

[A] Double-blind, randomized clinical trial. A study of an intervention in which subjects are prospectively followed over time; there are treatment and control groups; subjects are randomly assigned to the two groups; both the subjects and the investigators are blind to the assignments.

[A–] Randomized clinical trial. Same as above, but not double-blind.

[B] Clinical trial. A prospective study in which an intervention is made and the results of that intervention are tracked longitudinally; study does not meet standards for a randomized clinical trial.

[C] Cohort or longitudinal study. A study in which subjects are prospectively followed over time without any specific intervention.

[D] Case-control study. A study in which a group of patients is identified in the present and information about them is pursued retrospectively or backward in time.

[E] Review with secondary data analysis. A structured analytic review of existing data, for example, a meta-analysis or a decision analysis.

[F] Review. A qualitative review and discussion of previously published literature without a quantitative synthesis of the data.

[G] Other. Textbooks, expert opinions, case reports, and other reports not included above.

1. Pasternak R, Rovner BW: Psychogeriatric programs: inpatient hospital units and partial hospital programs, in Comprehensive Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry. Edited by Sadavoy J, Jarvik LF, Grossberg GT, Meyers BS. New York, W. W. Norton & Co., 2004, pp 1103–1118 [G]

2. Rabins P, Nicholson M: Acute psychiatric hospitalization for patients with irreversible dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1991; 6:209–211 [G]

3. Zubenko GS, Rosen J, Sweet RA, Mulsant BH, Rifai AH: Impact of psychiatric hospitalization on behavioral complications of Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1992; 149:1484–1491 [B]
[PubMed]

4. Callahan CM, Boustani MA, Unverzagt FW, Austrom MG, Damush TM, Perkins AJ, Fultz BA, Hui SL, Counsell SR, Hendrie HC: Effectiveness of collaborative care for older adults with Alzheimer disease in primary care: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006; 295:2148–2157 [A–]
[PubMed]

5. Knopman DS, DeKosky ST, Cummings JL, Chui H, Corey-Bloom J, Relkin N, Small GW, Miller B, Stevens JC: Practice parameter: diagnosis of dementia (an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2001; 56:1143–1153 [G]
[PubMed]

6. Petersen RC, Stevens JC, Ganguli M, Tangalos EG, Cummings JL, DeKosky ST: Practice parameter: early detection of dementia: mild cognitive impairment (an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2001; 56:1133–1142 [G]
[PubMed]

7. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Recognition and Initial Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias: Clinical Practice Guideline, vol. 19. Washington, DC, US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1996 [G]

8. American Psychiatric Association: Practice guideline for psychiatric evaluation of adults, 2nd edition. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163(June suppl):1–36 [G]

9. Crum RM, Anthony JC, Bassett SS, Folstein MF: Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level. JAMA 1993; 269:2386–2391 [G]
[PubMed]

10. Tang-Wai DF, Knopman DS, Geda YE, Edland SD, Smith GE, Ivnik RJ, Tangalos EG, Boeve BF, Petersen RC: Comparison of the Short Test of Mental Status and the Mini-Mental State Examination in mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 2003; 60:1777–1781 [G]
[PubMed]

11. Chui H, Zhang Q: Evaluation of dementia: a systematic study of the usefulness of the American Academy of Neurology's practice parameters. Neurology 1997; 49:925–935 [G]
[PubMed]

12. Coimbra A, Williams DS, Hostetler ED: The role of MRI and PET/SPECT in Alzheimer's disease. Curr Top Med Chem 2006; 6:629–647 [F]
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

15. Sanchez-Juan P, Green A, Ladogana A, Cuadrado-Corrales N, Saanchez-Valle R, Mitrovaa E, Stoeck K, Sklaviadis T, Kulczycki J, Hess K, Bodemer M, Slivarichova D, Saiz A, Calero M, Ingrosso L, Knight R, Janssens AC, van Duijn CM, Zerr I: CSF tests in the differential diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neurology 2006; 67:637–643 [D]
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

18. Saunders AM, Strittmatter WJ, Schmechel D, George-Hyslop PH, Pericak-Vance MA, Joo SH, Rosi BL, Gusella JF, Crapper-MacLachlan DR, Alberts MJ, Hulette C, Crain B, Goldgaber D, Roses AD: Association of apolipoprotein E allele epsilon 4 with late-onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1993; 43:1467–1472 [G]
[PubMed]

19. Locke PA, Conneally PM, Tanzi RE, Gusella JF, Haines JL: Apolipoprotein E4 allele and Alzheimer disease: examination of allelic association and effect on age at onset in both early- and late-onset cases. Genet Epidemiol 1995; 12:83–92 [G]
[PubMed]

20. Mayeux R, Saunders AM, Shea S, Mirra S, Evans D, Roses AD, Hyman BT, Crain B, Tang MX, Phelps CH: Utility of the apolipoprotein E genotype in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Disease Centers Consortium on Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's Disease. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:506–511 [G]
[PubMed]

21. American College of Medical Genetics/American Society of Human Genetics Working Group on ApoE and Alzheimer Disease: Statement on use of apolipoprotein E testing for Alzheimer disease. JAMA 1995; 274:1627–1629 [G]

22. National Institute on Aging/Alzheimer's Association Working Group: Apolipoprotein E genotyping in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 1996; 347:1091–1095 [G]

23. Goate A, Chartier-Harlin MC, Mullan M, Brown J, Crawford F, Fidani L, Giuffra L, Haynes A, Irving N, James L, Mant R, Newton P, Rooke K, Roques P, Talbot C, Pericak-Vance M, Roses A, Williamson R, Rossor MN, Owen M, Hardy J: Segregation of a missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein gene with familial Alzheimer's disease. Nature 1991; 349:704–706 [G]
[PubMed]

24. Sherrington R, Rogaev EI, Liang Y, Rogaeva EA, Levesque G, Ikeda M, Chi H, Lin C, Li G, Holman K, Tsuda T, Mar L, Foncin JF, Bruni AC, Montesi MP, Sorbi S, Rainero I, Pinessi L, Nee L, Chumakov I, Pollen D, Brookes A, Sanseau P, Pollinsky RL, Wasco W, Da Silva HA, Haines JL, Pericak-Vance MA, Tanzi RE, Roses A, Frazer P, Rommens J, St. George-Hyslop P: Cloning of a gene bearing missense mutations in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Nature 1995; 375:754–760 [G]
[PubMed]

25. Levy-Lahad E, Wasco W, Poorkaj P, Romano DM, Oshima J, Pettingell WH, Yu CE, Jondro PD, Schmidt SD, Wang K, Crowley AC, Fu Y-H, Guenette SY, Galas D, Nemens E, Wijsman EM, Bird TD, Schellenberg GD, Tanzi RE: Candidate gene for the chromosome 1 familial Alzheimer's disease locus. Science 1995; 269:973–977 [G]
[PubMed]

26. Inouye SK, Bogardus ST Jr, Charpentier PA, Leo-Summers L, Acampora D, Holford TR, Cooney LM Jr: A multicomponent intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients. N Engl J Med 1999; 340:669–676 [B]
[PubMed]

27. Post SG, Whitehouse PJ, Binstock RH, Bird TD, Eckert SK, Farrer LA, Fleck LM, Gaines AD, Juengst ET, Karlinsky H, Miles S, Murray TH, Quaid KA, Relkin NR, Roses AD, George-Hyslop PH, Sachs GA, Steinbock B, Truschke EF, Zinn AB: The clinical introduction of genetic testing for Alzheimer disease: an ethical perspective. JAMA 1997; 277:832–836 [G]
[PubMed]

28. Blacker D: New insights into genetic aspects of Alzheimer's disease: does genetic information make a difference in clinical practice? Postgrad Med 2000; 108:119–122, 125–126, 129 [G]

29. Goldman JS, Farmer JM, Van Deerlin VM, Wilhelmsen KC, Miller BL, Grossman M: Frontotemporal dementia: genetics and genetic counseling dilemmas. Neurologist 2004; 10:227–234 [G]
[PubMed]

30. Baker M, Mackenzie IR, Pickering-Brown SM, Gass J, Rademakers R, Lindholm C, Snowden J, Adamson J, Sadovnick AD, Rollinson S, Cannon A, Dwosh E, Neary D, Melquist S, Richardson A, Dickson D, Berger Z, Eriksen J, Robinson T, Zehr C, Dickey CA, Crook R, McGowan E, Mann D, Boeve B, Feldman H, Hutton M: Mutations in progranulin cause tau-negative frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 17. Nature 2006; 442:916–919 [G]
[PubMed]

31. MacMillan JC, Snell RG, Tyler A, Houlihan GD, Fenton I, Cheadle JP, Lazarou LP, Shaw DJ, Harper PS: Molecular analysis and clinical correlations of the Huntington's disease mutation. Lancet 1993; 342:954–958 [G]
[PubMed]

32. Joutel A, Vahedi K, Corpechot C, Troesch A, Chabriat H, Vayssiere C, Cruaud C, Maciazek J, Weissenbach J, Bousser MG, Bach JF, Tournier-Lasserve E: Strong clustering and stereotyped nature of Notch 3 mutations in CADASIL patients. Lancet 1997; 350:1511–1515 [G]
[PubMed]

33. Lyketsos CG, Lopez O, Jones B, Fitzpatrick AL, Breitner J, DeKosky S: Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: results from the cardiovascular health study. JAMA 2002; 288:1475–1483 [C]
[PubMed]

34. Steinberg M, Corcoran C, Tschanz JT, Huber C, Welsh-Bohmer K, Norton MC, Zandi P, Breitner JC, Steffens DC, Lyketsos CG: Risk factors for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: the Cache County Study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006; 21:824–830 [C]
[PubMed]

35. Warner ML: The Complete Guide to Alzheimer's-Proofing Your Home, revised ed. West Lafayette, IN, Purdue University Press, 2000 [G]

36. American Psychiatric Association: Practice guideline for the assessment and treatment of patients with suicidal behaviors. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160(Nov suppl):1–60 [G]

37. Kovach CR, Taneli Y, Dohearty P, Schlidt AM, Cashin S, Silva-Smith AL: Effect of the BACE intervention on agitation of people with dementia. Gerontologist 2004; 44:797–806 [A]
[PubMed]

38. Leibovici A, Tariot PN: Agitation associated with dementia: a systematic approach to treatment. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988; 24:49–53 [G]
[PubMed]

39. Reisberg B, Borenstein J, Salob SP, Ferris SH, Franssen E, Georgotas A: Behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: phenomenology and treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 1987; 48(May suppl):9–15 [G]

40. Devanand DP, Sackeim HA, Mayeux R: Psychosis, behavioral disturbance, and the use of neuroleptics in dementia. Compr Psychiatry 1988; 29:387–401 [F]
[PubMed]

41. Rabins PV, Lyketsos CG, Steele CD: Practical Dementia Care, 2nd ed. New York, Oxford University Press, 2006 [G]

42. Burton LC, German PS, Rovner BW, Brant LJ: Physical restraint use and cognitive decline among nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 1992; 40:811–816 [C]
[PubMed]

43. Capezuti E, Evans L, Strumpf N, Maislin G: Physical restraint use and falls in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44:627–633 [D]
[PubMed]

44. Neufeld RR, Libow LS, Foley WJ, Dunbar JM, Cohen C, Breuer B: Restraint reduction reduces serious injuries among nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47:1202–1207 [B]
[PubMed]

45. Gillespie LD, Gillespie WJ, Robertson MC, Lamb SE, Cumming RG, Rowe BH: Interventions for preventing falls in elderly people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; (4):CD000340 [E]

46. Klein DA, Steinberg M, Galik E, Steele C, Sheppard JM, Warren A, Rosenblatt A, Lyketsos CG: Wandering behaviour in community-residing persons with dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999; 14:272–279 [D]
[PubMed]

47. Price JD, Hermans DG, Grimley EJ: Subjective barriers to prevent wandering of cognitively impaired people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (4):CD001932 [E]

48. Dubinsky RM, Stein AC, Lyons K: Practice parameter: risk of driving and Alzheimer's disease (an evidence-based review): report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2000; 54:2205–2211 [G]
[PubMed]

49. Cox DJ, Quillian WC, Thorndike FP, Kovatchev BP, Hanna G: Evaluating driving performance of outpatients with Alzheimer disease. J Am Board Fam Pract 1998; 11:264–271 [G]
[PubMed]

50. Gilley DW, Wilson RS, Bennett DA, Stebbins GT, Bernard BA, Whalen ME, Fox JH: Cessation of driving and unsafe motor vehicle operation by dementia patients. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151:941–946 [G]
[PubMed]

51. Carr D, Jackson T, Alquire P: Characteristics of an elderly driving population referred to a geriatric assessment center. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990; 38:1145–1150 [D]
[PubMed]

52. O'Neill D, Neubauer K, Boyle M, Gerrard J, Surmon D, Wilcock GK: Dementia and driving. J R Soc Med 1992; 85:199–202 [G]
[PubMed]

53. Drachman DA, Swearer JM: Driving and Alzheimer's disease: the risk of crashes. Neurology 1993; 43:2448–2456 [D]
[PubMed]

54. Hopkins RW, Kilik L, Day DJ, Rows C, Tseng H: Driving and dementia in Ontario: a quantitative assessment of the problem. Can J Psychiatry 2004; 49:434–438 [G]
[PubMed]

55. American Psychiatric Association: The Role of the Psychiatrist in Assessing Driving Ability: Position Statement. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1993 [G]

56. Reger MA, Welsh RK, Watson GS, Cholerton B, Baker LD, Craft S: The relationship between neuropsychological functioning and driving ability in dementia: a meta-analysis. Neuropsychology 2004; 18:85–93 [E]
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57. Ott BR, Anthony D, Papandonatos GD, D'Abreu A, Burock J, Curtin A, Wu CK, Morris JC: Clinician assessment of the driving competence of patients with dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005; 53:829–833 [G]
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58. Duchek JM, Carr DB, Hunt L, Roe CM, Xiong C, Shah K, Morris JC: Longitudinal driving performance in early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer type. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51:1342–1347 [C]
[PubMed]

59. Adler G, Rottunda S, Dysken M: The older driver with dementia: an updated literature review. J Safety Res 2005; 36:399–407 [F]
[PubMed]

60. Brown LB, Ott BR: Driving and dementia: a review of the literature. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2004; 17:232–240 [F]
[PubMed]

61. Perkinson MA, Berg-Weger ML, Carr DB, Meuser TM, Palmer JL, Buckles VD, Powlishta KK, Foley DJ, Morris JC: Driving and dementia of the Alzheimer type: beliefs and cessation strategies among stakeholders. Gerontologist 2005; 45:676–685 [G]
[PubMed]

62. Friedland RP, Koss E, Kumar A, Gaine S, Metzler D, Haxby JV, Moore A: Motor vehicle crashes in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Ann Neurol 1988; 24:782–786 [C]
[PubMed]

63. Odenheimer GL, Beaudet M, Jette AM, Albert MS, Grande L, Minaker KL: Performance-based driving evaluation of the elderly driver: safety, reliability, and validity. J Gerontol 1994; 49:M153–M159 [G]

64. Fitten LJ, Perryman KM, Wilkinson CJ, Little RJ, Burns MM, Pachana N, Mervis JR, Malmgren R, Siembieda DW, Ganzell S: Alzheimer and vascular dementias and driving: a prospective road and laboratory study. JAMA 1995; 273:1360–1365 [C]
[PubMed]

65. Carr DB, Duchek J, Morris JC: Characteristics of motor vehicle crashes of drivers with dementia of the Alzheimer type. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48:18–22 [D]
[PubMed]

66. Shua-Haim JR, Gross JS: The "co-pilot" driver syndrome. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44:815–817 [G]
[PubMed]

67. Wang CC, Carr DB: Older driver safety: a report from the Older Drivers Project. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52:143–149 [G]
[PubMed]

68. Taylor BD, Tripodes S: The effects of driving cessation on the elderly with dementia and their caregivers. Accid Anal Prev 2001; 33:519–528 [G]
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69. Drickamer MA, Lachs MS: Should patients with Alzheimer's disease be told their diagnosis? N Engl J Med 1992; 326:947–951 [G]
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[PubMed]

72. Ostwald SK, Hepburn KW, Caron W, Burns T, Mantell R: Reducing caregiver burden: a randomized psychoeducational intervention for caregivers of persons with dementia. Gerontologist 1999; 39:299–309 [A–]
[PubMed]

73. Lovett S, Gallagher D: Psychoeducational interventions for family caregivers: preliminary efficacy data. Behav Ther 1988; 19:321–330 [B]

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[PubMed]

76. Chang BL: Cognitive-behavioral intervention for homebound caregivers of persons with dementia. Nurs Res 1999; 48:173–182 [A–]
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77. King AC, Baumann K, O'Sullivan P, Wilcox S, Castro C: Effects of moderate-intensity exercise on physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses to family caregiving: a randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002; 57:M26–M36 [A–]

78. Chiverton P, Caine ED: Education to assist spouses in coping with Alzheimer's disease: a controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1989; 37:593–598 [C]
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79. Mittelman MS, Ferris SH, Steinberg G, Shulman E, Mackell JA, Ambinder A, Cohen J: An intervention that delays institutionalization of Alzheimer's disease patients: treatment of spouse-caregivers. Gerontologist 1993; 33:730–740 [A–]
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81. Burgio L, Stevens A, Guy D, Roth DL, Haley WE: Impact of two psychosocial interventions on white and African American family caregivers of individuals with dementia. Gerontologist 2003; 43:568–579 [A–]
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82. Coon DW, Thompson L, Steffen A, Sorocco K, Gallagher-Thompson D: Anger and depression management: psychoeducational skill training interventions for women caregivers of a relative with dementia. Gerontologist 2003; 43:678–689 [A–]
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83. Hebert R, Levesque L, Vezina J, Lavoie JP, Ducharme F, Gendron C, Preville M, Voyer L, Dubois MF: Efficacy of a psychoeducative group program for caregivers of demented persons living at home: a randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2003; 58:S58–S67 [A–]

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[PubMed]

87. Mittelman MS, Ferris SH, Shulman E, Steinberg G, Levin B: A family intervention to delay nursing home placement of patients with Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1996; 276:1725–1731 [A–]
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90. Burdz MP, Eaton WO, Bond JB Jr: Effect of respite care on dementia and nondementia patients and their caregivers. Psychol Aging 1988; 3:38–42 [G]
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110. Lyness JM: End-of-life care: issues relevant to the geriatric psychiatrist. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004; 12:457–472 [F]
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115. Opie J, Rosewarne R, O'Connor DW: The efficacy of psychosocial approaches to behaviour disorders in dementia: a systematic literature review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1999; 33:789–799 [F]
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