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The following coding system is used to indicate the nature of the supporting evidence in the summary recommendations and references:

  • [A] Randomized clinical trial. A study of an intervention in which subjects are prospectively followed over time; there are treatment and control groups; subjects are randomly assigned to the two groups; both the subjects and the investigators are blind to the assignments.

  • [A–] Same as above, but not double-blind.

  • [B] Clinical trial. A prospective study in which an intervention is made and the results of that intervention are tracked longitudinally; study does not meet standards for a randomized clinical trial.

  • [C] Cohort or longitudinal study. A study in which subjects are prospectively followed over time without any specific intervention.

  • [D] Case-control study. A study in which a group of patients is identified in the present and information about them is pursued retrospectively or backward in time.

  • [E] Review with secondary data analysis. A structured analytic review of existing data, e.g., a meta-analysis or a decision analysis.

  • [F] Review. A qualitative review and discussion of previously published literature without a quantitative synthesis of the data.

  • [G] Other. Textbooks, expert opinions, case reports, and other reports not included above.

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2. Canadian Psychiatric Association: Clinical practice guidelines: management of anxiety disorders. Can J Psychiatry 2006; 51:9S–92S [G]

3. Stein MB, Walker JR, Anderson G, Hazen AL, Ross CA, Eldridge G, Forde DR: Childhood physical and sexual abuse in patients with anxiety disorders and in a community sample. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153:275–277 [D] 1003927
[PubMed]

4. Bandelow B, Spath C, Tichauer GA, Broocks A, Hajak G, Ruther E: Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with panic disorder. Compr Psychiatry 2002; 43:269–278 [D]
[PubMed]

5. Safren SA, Gershuny BS, Marzol P, Otto MW, Pollack MH: History of childhood abuse in panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 2002; 190:453–456 [G]
[PubMed]

6. Goodwin RD, Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ: Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychol Med 2005; 35:881–890 [C]
[PubMed]

7. Faravelli C, Pallanti S: Recent life events and panic disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146:622–626 [D]
[PubMed]

8. American Psychiatric Association: Practice Guideline for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults, Second Edition. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163(June suppl):1–36 [G]

9. Andrade L, Caraveo-Anduaga JJ, Berglund P, Bijl RV, de Graaf R, Vollebergh W, Dragomirecka E, Kohn R, Keller M, Kessler RC, Kawakami N, Kilic C, Offord D, Ustun TB, Wittchen HU: The epidemiology of major depressive episodes: results from the International Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE) Surveys. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2003; 12:3–21 [G]
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14. Goodwin RD: Anxiety disorders and the onset of depression among adults in the community. Psychol Med 2002; 32:1121–1124 [G]
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15. Rush AJ, Zimmerman M, Wisniewski SR, Fava M, Hollon SD, Warden D, Biggs MM, Shores-Wilson K, Shelton RC, Luther JF, Thomas B, Trivedi MH: Comorbid psychiatric disorders in depressed outpatients: demographic and clinical features. J Affect Disord 2005; 87:43–55 [G]
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[PubMed]

17. Simon NM, Otto MW, Wisniewski SR, Fossey M, Sagduyu K, Frank E, Sachs GS, Nierenberg AA, Thase ME, Pollack MH: Anxiety disorder comorbidity in bipolar disorder patients: data from the first 500 participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161:2222–2229 [C] 1000195
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18. Simon NM, Otto MW, Fischmann D, Racette S, Nierenberg AA, Pollack MH, Smoller JW: Panic disorder and bipolar disorder: anxiety sensitivity as a potential mediator of panic during manic states. J Affect Disord 2005; 87:101–105 [G]
[PubMed]

19. Otto MW, Simon NM, Wisniewski SR, Miklowitz DJ, Kogan JN, Reilly-Harrington NA, Frank E, Nierenberg AA, Marangell LB, Sagduyu K, Weiss RD, Miyahara S, Thas ME, Sachs GS, Pollack MH: Prospective 12-month course of bipolar disorder in out-patients with and without comorbid anxiety disorders. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 189:20–25 [C]
[PubMed]

20. Simon NM, Otto MW, Weiss RD, Bauer MS, Miyahara S, Wisniewski SR, Thase ME, Kogan J, Frank E, Nierenberg AA, Calabrese JR, Sachs GS, Pollack MH: Pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder and comorbid conditions: baseline data from STEP-BD. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2004; 24: 512–520 [G]
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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