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FIGURE 4–1. Projections of dopamine-, norepinephrine-, serotonin-, and acetylcholine-containing neurons in the human brain.SN = substantia nigra; VTA = ventral tegmental area.Source. Adapted from Heimer 1995.

FIGURE 4–2. Low-power darkfield photomicrograph of a coronal section through macaque monkey brain processed for dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity.Consistent with its localization to dopaminergic structures, intense DAT immunoreactivity (DAT-IR) is evident in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and pars reticulata (SNr), as well as in the nigrostriatal projection to the caudate (Cd) and putamen (Pt) nuclei. Also note the marked differences in density of DAT-IR axons across the cortical regions on this section. DAT-IR axons are also present in areas not traditionally thought to contain DA axons, such as the dentate gyrus (DG) and the thalamus (Th). Scale bar = 2.0 mm. CgS = cingulate sulcus; CS = central sulcus; DA = dopamine; LS = lateral sulcus; STS = superior temporal sulcus.Source. Reprinted from Lewis DA, Melchitzky DS, Sesack SR, et al: "Dopamine Transporter Immunoreactivity in Monkey Cerebral Cortex: Regional, Laminar and Ultrastructural Localization." Journal of Comparative Neurology 432:119–138, 2001. Copyright 2001, Wiley. Used with permission.

FIGURE 4–3. Darkfield photomicrographs of (A) tyrosine hydroxylase–, (B) dopamine -hydroxylase–, (C) choline acetyltransferase–, and (D) serotonin-immunoreactive axons in area 9 of macaque monkey prefrontal cortex.Note the differences in relative density and the distinctive laminar distribution of each afferent system. Scale bar = 200 m. WM = white matter.Source. Adapted from Lewis et al. 1992.

FIGURE 4–4. Schematic representation of coronal sections from macaque monkey prefrontal cortex illustrating the relative densities of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine axons.Numbers refer to the cortical areas described by Walker (1940). CS = cingulate sulcus; LO = lateral orbital sulcus; MO = medial orbital sulcus; PS = principal sulcus; RS = rostral sulcus.Source. Adapted from Lewis 1992.

FIGURE 4–5. Darkfield photomicrographs of adjacent sections through the caudal part of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in macaque monkey labeled for (A) dopamine transporter (DAT), (B) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and (C) dopamine -hydroxylase (DBH).Note that the DAT- and TH-immunoreactive axons are primarily located in the ventral portion of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. In contrast, DBH-immunoreactive axons are present throughout the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. Scale bar = 700 m. dc = densocellular; pc = parvocellular.Source. Reprinted from Melchitzky DS, Lewis DA: "Dopamine Transporter–Immunoreactive Axons in the Mediodorsal Thalamic Nucleus of the Macaque Monkey." Neuroscience 103:1033–1042, 2001. Copyright 2001, Elsevier. Used with permission.

FIGURE 4–6. Darkfield photomicrographs of (A) dopamine transporter (DAT)–, (B) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)–, and (C) dopamine -hydroxylase (DBH)–immunoreactive axons in adjacent sections through vermal lobule VIIIB of macaque monkey cerebellum.Note that both the TH- and DAT-immunoreactive axons are primarily restricted to the granule cell layer (GC), with some clusters of axons extending into the Purkinje cell layer. TH-immunoreactive axons are also present in the molecular layer (ML), but no DAT-immunoreactive axons are detectable in this layer. In contrast, DBH-immunoreactive axons are distributed across all layers. In addition, the restricted lobular distribution of DAT-immunoreactive axons is illustrated by the marked paucity of these axons in the GC (asterisks in B) of the folium across the white matter, whereas the density of DBH-immunoreactive axons does not seem to differ across lobules. Scale bar = 150 m.Source. Reprinted from Melchitzky DS, Lewis DA: "Tyrosine Hydroxylase- and Dopamine Transporter–Immunoreactive Axons in the Primate Cerebellum: Evidence for a Lobular- and Laminar-Specific Dopamine Innervation." Neuropsychopharmacology 22:466–472, 2000. Copyright 2000, Elsevier. Used with permission.


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