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Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acid Neurotransmitters in the Context of Neural Circuitry

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FIGURE 4–8. (A) Schematic illustration of synaptic contacts between different subpopulations of GABA neurons and a layer 3 pyramidal neuron in monkey prefrontal cortex. (B) Film autoradiograms showing signals for parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST), and calretinin (CR) mRNAs in human prefrontal cortex.(A) The indicated synaptic connections of each subpopulation of GABA neuron are based on previous studies (see text for details).(B) Note the different laminar distribution of these three subclasses of GABA neurons. GABA = -aminobutyric acid; WM = white matter.Source. Adapted from Gonzalez-Burgos G, Hashimoto T, Lewis DA: "Inhibition and Timing in Cortical Neural Circuits" (Images in Neuroscience). American Journal of Psychiatry 164:12, 2007. Copyright 2007, American Psychiatric Association. Used with permission.

FIGURE 4–9. Schematic diagram of basal ganglia circuitry, illustrating the direct and indirect pathways.See text for details. DA = dopamine; DYN = dynorphin; ENK = enkephalin; GABA = -aminobutyric acid; GPe = external globus pallidus; GPi = internal globus pallidus; SNc = substantia nigra pars compacta; SNr = substantia nigra pars reticulata; SP = substance P; STN = subthalamic nucleus.Source. Adapted from Parent A, Sato F, Wu Y, et al: "Organization of the Basal Ganglia: The Importance of Axonal Collateralization." Trends in Neurosciences 23:S20–S27, 2000. Copyright 2000, Elsevier. Used with permission.

FIGURE 4–10. Organization of striatonigralstriatal projections.The organization of functional corticostriatal inputs (red = limbic, green = associative, blue = motor) is illustrated (see text for details). DLPFC = dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; IC = internal capsule; OMPFC = orbital and medial prefrontal cortex; SNc = substantia nigra pars compacta; SNr = substantia nigra pars reticulata. VTA = ventral tegmental area.Source. Adapted from Haber SN, Fudge JH, McFarland NR. "Striatonigrostriatal Pathways in Primates Form an Ascending Spiral From the Shell to the Dorsolateral Striatum." Journal of Neuroscience 20:2369–2382, 2000. Copyright 2000, Society for Neuroscience. Used with permission.

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