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FIGURE 5–8. Use of a microdialysis probe for delivering drugs locally during in vivo recordings to affect local circuits.

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FIGURE 5–8. Use of a microdialysis probe for delivering drugs locally during in vivo recordings to affect local circuits.(A) In this schematic diagram, the relationship between the microdialysis probe and the intracellular recording electrode is depicted. In this case, the neuron recorded is in the striatum. The active surface of the microdialysis probe is shown in gray; this is the area through which the compound is delivered. The probe is implanted very slowly so as not to disrupt the tissue (i.e., 3–6 m per second) and is perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid for 2–4 hours to allow equilibration and settling of the tissue prior to recording. The intracellular recording electrode is then advanced, and a neuron is impaled. After recording baseline activity for 10 minutes, the perfusate is changed to a drug-containing solution to examine the effects on the neuron. (B) The histology taken after the recording shows the track of the microdialysis probe; the termination site of the probe tip is indicated by a dashed arrow. To confirm that the neuron recorded was near the probe, the neuron is filled with a stain (in this case, biocytin) so as to allow visualization of the neuron. In this case, the neuron was confirmed to be a medium spiny striatal neuron (magnified in insert). ac = anterior commissure. (C) Recordings taken from the neuron labeled in B. The top trace shows the activity of the neuron while the microdialysis probe is being perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The neuron demonstrates a healthy resting membrane potential, and spontaneously occurring postsynaptic potentials are evident. The lower trace shows the same neuron 15 minutes after switching to a perfusate containing the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride. The neuron shows a strong depolarization of the resting potential (by 12 mV) as well as increased postsynaptic potential activity and spontaneous spike firing. Since the eticlopride is blocking the effects of dopamine that is being released spontaneously from dopamine terminals in this region, we can conclude that basal levels of dopamine D2 receptor stimulation cause a tonic hyperpolarization of the neuronal membrane and suppress spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials.Source. Adapted from West AR, Grace AA "Opposite Influences of Endogenous Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Activation on Activity States and Electrophysiological Properties of Striatal Neurons: Studies Combining In Vivo Intracellular Recordings and Reverse Microdialysis." Journal of Neuroscience 22:294–304, 2002. Copyright 2002, Society for Neuroscience. Used with permission.

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