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FIGURE 8–2. Predicted plasma concentration curves following single doses of a drug by rapid intravenous injection (I), a dosage form with complete bioavailability (II), a dosage form with reduced bioavailability (III), and an extended-release dosage form that reduces the rate but not the completeness of absorption (IV).MEC = minimal effective concentration.

FIGURE 8–3. Predicted concentration of a drug in plasma and tissue following a rapid intravenous injection.MEC = minimal effective concentration.

FIGURE 8–4. Effect of protein binding on distribution of drug between plasma and tissue.

FIGURE 8–5. Accumulation of drug during multiple dosing.It takes four to five half-lives (4–5 t1/2) to achieve initial steady state (Cpss) on a constant dosage regimen, to achieve a new steady state after an increase in dosage, or to wash out drug from the body after discontinuation. The average steady-state concentration lies somewhere between the peaks and troughs of drug concentration during a dosage interval.

FIGURE 8–6. Predicted plasma concentration changes from administering either a selected dose (D) every 24 hours (D q24h), twice the dose every 24 hours (2D q24h), or the original dose every 12 hours (D q12h).MEC = minimal effective concentration.
Table Reference Number
TABLE 8–1. Substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of the major human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in drug metabolism

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