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FIGURE 10–3. Schematic diagram of the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) on the local magnetic field of brain tissue.Only deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) has paramagnetic properties and locally distorts the field, leading to faster spin dephasing.Source. Reprinted from Pagnoni G, Berns GS: "Brain Imaging in Psychopharmacology," in The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 3rd Edition. Edited by Schatzberg AF, Nemeroff CB. Washington, DC, 2003, pp. 163–172. Copyright 2003, American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. Used with permission.

FIGURE 10–4. Relative blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) response to 1-second visual stimulation.These functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are from the occipital cortex and were obtained in a healthy volunteer in a 3-tesla scanner. The amplitude of the signal is about 2%, with the peak 5–8 seconds after the stimulus.Source. Reprinted from Pagnoni G, Berns GS: "Brain Imaging in Psychopharmacology," in The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 3rd Edition. Edited by Schatzberg AF, Nemeroff CB. Washington, DC, 2003, pp. 163–172. Copyright 2003, American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. Used with permission.

FIGURE 10–5. Ventral striatum activation for wins versus monetary losses during a gambling task, as visualized with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Source. Image courtesy of Giuseppe Pagnoni, Ph.D.

FIGURE 10–6. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) spectrum from right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex voxel of a healthy individual.MM = macromolecules; NAA = N-acetylaspartate; Glx = glutamate/glutamine; Cr/PCr = creatine/phosphocreatine; Ch = choline; mI = myoinositol.Source. Reprinted from Haroon E, Watari K, Thomas MA, et al.: "Prefrontal Myo-Inositol Concentration and Visuospatial Functioning Among Diabetic Depressed Patients." Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 171:10–19, 2009. Copyright 2009, Elsevier Ltd. Used with permission.
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TABLE 10–2. Use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in psychopharmacology research
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TABLE 10–3. Advantages and disadvantages of positron emission tomography (PET) versus functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

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