History and Discovery | Structure–Activity Relations | Pharmacological Profile | Pharmacokinetics and Disposition | Mechanism of Action | Indications and Efficacy | Side Effects and Toxicology | Drug–Drug Interactions
Anticholinergic side effects and inadequate treatment response
eventually led to the investigation of other agents to treat EPS.
Initially, both methylphenidate and intravenous caffeine were investigated
as treatments for NIP. Neither agent achieved general use, despite
apparent efficacy (Brooks 1956; Freyhan 1959).