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Botulinum toxin, produced by Clostridium botulinum, causes botulism when ingested. The first clinical use of the toxin was in the treatment of childhood strabismus (Scott 1980). The first focal dystonia treated was blepharospasm (Elston 1988). Botulinum toxin has been subsequently used to treat a number of other conditions associated with excessive muscle activity, including neuroleptic-induced dystonias (Hughes 1994).

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