History and Discovery | Structure–Activity Relations | Pharmacological Profile | Pharmacokinetics and Disposition | Mechanism of Action | Indications and Efficacy | Side Effects and Toxicology | Drug–Drug Interactions
Botulinum toxin, produced by Clostridium botulinum, causes
botulism when ingested. The first clinical use of the toxin was
in the treatment of childhood strabismus (Scott 1980).
The first focal dystonia treated was blepharospasm (Elston 1988). Botulinum toxin has been subsequently used to treat
a number of other conditions associated with excessive muscle activity,
including neuroleptic-induced dystonias (Hughes 1994).