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CBZ is available in the United States as a proprietary product (Tegretol) marketed for epilepsy by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation in suspension (100 mg/5 mL), chewable tablets (100 mg), nonchewable tablets (200 mg), and extended-release (Tegretol XR) tablets (100-, 200-, and 400-mg) ("Tegretol" 2008). An additional proprietary extended-release formulation marketed for epilepsy as Carbatrol (by Shire US Inc.) and for bipolar disorder as Equetro (by Validus Pharmaceuticals) is available in 100-, 200-, and 300-mg capsules ("Carbatrol" 2008; "Equetro" 2008). Intramuscular and depot formulations are not available. CBZ is also available in generic formulations. Differences have been observed in the bioavailability of proprietary and generic formulations (Meyer et al. 1992).

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FIGURE 37–1. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine metabolism.CBZ = carbamazepine; CBZ-D = carbamazepine-10,11-dihydro-dihydroxide; CBZ-E = carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide; CYP3A3/4 = cytochrome P450 3A3/4 isoenzyme; MHD = monohydroxy derivative; OXC = oxcarbazepine.+ = indicates enzyme induction; – = indicates enzyme inhibition.

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