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Decreased plasma tryptophan concentrations
Decreased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic
Increased CSF 5-HIAA in psychotic depression
Increased postsynaptic 5-HT2 receptors
Decreased brain and platelet [3H]imipramine
Decreased brain and platelet [3H]paroxetine
Blunted prolactin response to fenfluramine
Decreased serotonin transporter (5-HTT) binding in
the midbrain of depressed patients (on [123I]- -CIT)
Note. [123I]--CIT = 123I-labeled
Increased or decreased 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)
binding in platelets
Blunted growth hormone response to clonidine
receptors in postmortem brain of suicide victims
Downregulation of -adrenergic
receptors after treatment with antidepressants
Decreased CSF concentrations of homovanillic acid and
urinary concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in patients with
Reduced dopaminergic activity within the caudate, putamen,
and nucleus accumbens of depressed patients with affective flattening
and psychomotor retardation as measured by [18F]- fluorodopa
Reduced dopaminergic activity in the CNS of depressed
patients (PET imaging) and suicide victims (postmortem autoradiography)
Decreased levels of serum dopamine -hydroxylase
activity, higher concentrations of plasma dopamine and increased
CSF concentrations of homovanillic acid in patients with psychotic depression
Note. CNS = central
nervous system; CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; PET = positron
Platelet MAO activity higher in patients with psychotic
depression compared with nonpsychotic depressed patients and healthy
High platelet MAO activity correlated with elevated
urinary free cortisol and DST nonsuppression
Elevated MAO-A activity within the CNS of depressed
patients as measured by PET imaging
Note. CNS = central
nervous system; DST = dexamethasone suppression test; PET = positron
Reduced density of NMDA/glycine binding sites
within the brains of suicide victims and patients with major depression and
Reduced neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity within
the locus coeruleus of depressed patients
Elevated concentrations of the glutamate receptor subunit, NR2C,
within the locus coeruleus of depressed patients
Note. NMDA = N-methyl-d-aspartate.
Cerebrospinal fluid GABA concentrations are lower in
depressed patients compared with nondepressed control subjects.
Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with a history
of major depression have lower plasma concentrations of GABA compared
with subjects without such a family history.
Note. GABA = -aminobutyric
Postmortem studies of depressed suicide victims exhibit
decreased hippocampal BDNF expression.
Increased hippocampal BDNF immunoreactivity is observed
in depressed patients treated with antidepressants.
Downregulation of the extracellular regulated kinase
pathway is seen in completed suicides.
Variety of antidepressant treatments used in humans
increase the expression of hippocampal BDNF and block stress-induced downregulation
of BDNF expression.
Note. BDNF = brain-derived