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5-HT is an indoleamine neurotransmitter derived enzymatically from tryptophan and produced in neurons of the rostral and caudal raphe nuclei. Projections originating from the raphe are widespread and innervate a variety of forebrain structures including the hypothalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, cingulate cortex, and prefrontal cortex (Azmitia and Gannon 1986). Fourteen 5-HT receptors, localized on both pre- and postsynaptic elements, have now been identified and include members of the ionotropic as well as metabotropic receptor gene superfamilies (Baez et al. 1995). Following release from synaptic terminals, 5-HT is removed from extracellular fluid by the 5-HTT, located on the presynaptic terminal, and is either repackaged into synaptic vesicles or degraded by monoamine oxidase (MAO).

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Table Reference Number
TABLE 45–8. Alterations in the serotonergic system in depression
Table Reference Number
TABLE 45–9. Alterations in the noradrenergic system in depression
Table Reference Number
TABLE 45–10. Alterations in the dopaminergic system in depression
Table Reference Number
TABLE 45–11. Alterations of monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in depression

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