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Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acid Neurotransmitters

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Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter within the CNS and is critically involved in learning and memory formation by both its release as a conventional neurotransmission and its role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity (Derkach et al. 2007; Gillespie and Ressler 2005; Rao and Finkbeiner 2007). These effects are mediated by a large variety of glutamate receptor subtypes that have been identified. They include three major groups of excitatory ionotropic receptors—the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, the -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, and the kainate receptor—and a group of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs).

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Table Reference Number
TABLE 45–12. Alterations of the glutamatergic system in depression and bipolar disorder
Table Reference Number
TABLE 45–13. Alterations of the GABAergic system in depression

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