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FIGURE 52–2. Response reversal and the medial prefrontal cortex.

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FIGURE 52–2. Response reversal and the medial prefrontal cortex.This figure shows details of a probabilistic response reversal task (A). In this task, subjects begin by trying to select a rewarded target (e.g., the giraffe) while avoiding a punished target (e.g., the elephant). Following acquisition of this "giraffe-reward" rule, the contingencies change in the reversal phase of the task. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (B) demonstrates that during this learning-related process, decreased engagement of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) occurs in trials when adult subjects commit errors by failing to learn the new "elephant-reward" rule. Deficient medial PFC engagement on such tasks in some pediatric mental syndromes might reflect a role for perturbed medial PFC function in the condition. BOLD = blood oxygenation level–dependent.Source. (A) Reprinted from Finger EC, Marsh AA, Mitchell DG, et al: "Abnormal Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Function in Children With Psychopathic Traits During Reversal Learning." Archives of General Psychiatry 65:586–594, 2008. Copyright 2008, American Medical Association. Used with permission.(B) Reprinted from Budhani S, Marsh AA, Pine DS, et al: "Neural Correlates of Response Reversal: Considering Acquisition." Neuroimage 34:1754–1765, 2007. Copyright 2007, Elsevier. Used with permission.

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