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Basal forebrain, VLPO neurons
HR, RR, BP, BT, EMG
↕HR, ↕RR, ↕BP, poikilothermic, EMG
Process S and Process C
Independent pontine oscillator
Developmental course across life span
Appears during first year, in
early adolescence, then stabilizes in adulthood
High at birth, decreases by age 6 years to adult levels
Neurometabolic restoration, synaptic pruning
Early mammalian brain development
Insomnia, parasomnias, hypersomnias
Nightmares, RBD, narcolepsy
Note. = increased; = decreased; = very
greatly decreased; ↕ = highly variable.
BP = blood pressure; BT = body temperature;
EMG = electromyograph; HR = heart rate; REM = rapid
eye movement; RBD = REM sleep behavior disorder; RR = respiratory
rate; VLPO = ventrolateral preoptic area.