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The focus of this chapter is twofold. First, we discuss major classes of medications as they relate to pain management. Because a number of drugs are effective across multiple types of pain disorders, it is useful to consider them in a cross-cutting as well as a disease-specific fashion. Nonpharmacological treatments are also reviewed. In the following main section ("Selected Pain Disorders"), we briefly address several specific categories of disorders chosen because they 1) account for the most common types of chronic pain, 2) are conditions for which pain management is the principal focus, and 3) have been studied in numerous clinical trials. In short, prevalence, pain management as a priority rather than disease modification, and evidence-based therapy are the three selection criteria for the discussion of specific disorders. Even within these two broad foci (disorders and treatments), there will perforce be some intermingling. For example, certain drug classes have been heavily studied within certain pain disorders, and conversely, certain pain disorders have been a common target of several classes of medications or other treatments.

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Table Reference Number
TABLE 66–1. Oral and transdermal opioid analgesic equivalence
Table Reference Number
TABLE 66–2. Key principles for initiating and maintaining exercise for chronic pain
Table Reference Number
TABLE 66–3. Acupuncture and magnets for painful disorders: summary of systematic reviews

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