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FIGURE 2–4. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).A, Fractional anisotropy color map derived from DTI in the sagittal plane. Red indicates white matter fibers coursing in a right-left direction, blue indicates fibers running in a superior-inferior direction, and green reflects fibers oriented in an anterior-posterior direction. B, Fiber tracking using DTI of the total corpus callosum overlaid on a T1-weighted inversion recovery image from the same brain.Source. Images courtesy of Elisabeth A. Wilde, PhD, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

FIGURE 2–5. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in traumatic brain injury and bipolar disorder.Fiber tracking of the corpus callosum in A, a 16-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury and B, an uninjured young man of the same age. The arrow indicates the absence of fibers emanating from the posterior body of the corpus callosum. Note also the reduced length and number of fibers emanating from other aspects of the corpus callosum body, likely resulting from injury to the white matter in this area. The mean fractional anisotropy of the fibers in this system was significantly reduced. In addition to quantitative measures of anisotropy, DTI can be used to examine aberrant fiber patterns such as that demonstrated in a 55-year-old female bipolar patient (C) as compared with the expected pattern demonstrated in a woman of comparable age without history of illness (D). Interestingly, the patient had no significant abnormalities evident on conventional magnetic resonance imaging.Source. Images courtesy of Elisabeth A. Wilde, PhD, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

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