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FIGURE 8–1. Hypothesized delirium cascade: dopamine–oxygen link.ATP = adenosine triphosphate; Ca+ = calcium; DA = dopamine; O2 = oxygen; TH = tyrosine hydroxylase.

FIGURE 8–2. Gaudreau and Gagnon delirium circuit hypothesis.ACh = acetylcholine; DA = dopamine; GABA = -aminobutyric acid; Glu = glutamate.Source. Reprinted from Gaudreau JD, Gagnon P: "Psychogenic Drugs and Delirium Pathogenesis: The Central Role of the Thalamus." Medical Hypotheses 64:471–475, 2005. Copyright 2005, Elsevier, Inc. Used with permission.

FIGURE 8–3. Comparison of electroencephalogram, constructional apraxia, and mental status in delirium.

FIGURE 8–4. Interrelationship of baseline and precipitating factors in delirium.Source. Adapted from Inouye SK, Charpentier PA: "Precipitating Factors for Delirium in Hospitalized Elderly Persons: Predictive Model and Interrelationship With Baseline Vulnerability." Journal of the American Medical Association 275:852–857, 1996. Copyright 1996, American Medical Association. Used with permission.

FIGURE 8–5. Lorazepam and the probability of transitioning to delirium.Source. Reprinted from Pandharipande P, Shintani A, Peterson J, et al: "Lorazepam Is an Independent Risk Factor for Transitioning to Delirium in Intensive Care Unit Patients." Anesthesiology 104:21–26, 2006. Copyright 2006, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Used with permission.

FIGURE 8–6. Delirium and mortality in intensive care unit patients.Source. Ely et al. 2004a.
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TABLE 8–1. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for delirium due to . . . [indicate the general medical condition]
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TABLE 8–2. Range of reported frequencies of clinical features of delirium
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TABLE 8–3. Evaluation of delirium
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TABLE 8–4. Delirium versus dementia
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TABLE 8–5. Delirium differential beyond dementia
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TABLE 8–6. Risk factors for delirium
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TABLE 8–7. Risk factors for delirium and intervention protocols
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TABLE 8–8. Reports of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of delirium


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