History | Epidemiology | Clinical Features | Differential Diagnosis | Etiology | Treatment
Havelock Ellis (1898) introduced the term narcissism in 1898
to describe a type of sexual perversion involving treating oneself
as a sexual object. Freud then adopted the term to describe a more
general attitude of self-absorption and self-love. Later, analysts
moved the concept toward excessive self-love and grandiosity that
develop in response to injured self-esteem (Morrison 1989).
The concept of a narcissistic type of personality disorder developed
only during the 1980s and was inspired largely by the enormous attention given
to pathological narcissism in the psychoanalytic community (Gunderson et al. 1991). Ironically, this attention was largely an outgrowth
of Heinz Kohut's (1971) theoretical and clinical
contributions, many of which focused on nonpathological narcissism.