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Havelock Ellis (1898) introduced the term narcissism in 1898 to describe a type of sexual perversion involving treating oneself as a sexual object. Freud then adopted the term to describe a more general attitude of self-absorption and self-love. Later, analysts moved the concept toward excessive self-love and grandiosity that develop in response to injured self-esteem (Morrison 1989). The concept of a narcissistic type of personality disorder developed only during the 1980s and was inspired largely by the enormous attention given to pathological narcissism in the psychoanalytic community (Gunderson et al. 1991). Ironically, this attention was largely an outgrowth of Heinz Kohut's (1971) theoretical and clinical contributions, many of which focused on nonpathological narcissism.

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Table Reference Number
TABLE 20–19. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for narcissistic personality disorder
Table Reference Number
TABLE 20–20. Treatment of narcissistic personality disorder

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