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ADHD is defined by three core symptom clusters: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (Table 21–16). DSM-IV-TR divides ADHD into three types according to the presence or absence of six symptoms in each category. These are primarily inattentive type, primarily hyperactive–impulsive type, and combined type (for those with symptoms in both categories). Some symptoms must be present prior to age 7 years and must occur for at least 6 months in more than one setting. They must cause clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning and be inconsistent for developmental age and intellectual ability (American Psychiatric Association 2000).

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Table Reference Number
TABLE 21–16. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
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TABLE 21–17. Psychiatric disorders often associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
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TABLE 21–18. Differential diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
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TABLE 21–19. Differentiating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from bipolar affective disorder
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TABLE 21–20. Secondary effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
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TABLE 21–21. Positive effects of psychostimulant treatment

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