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Sleep-disordered breathing (i.e., sleep apnea)
Nocturnal myoclonus or periodic leg movements
Sleep–wake schedule disorder
Secondary causes of insomnia
secondary to medication use
physical illness (e.g., congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease, nocturia)
Screening (satisfaction with sleep, daytime napping, sleep–wake
cycle problems, fatigue, and complaints [e.g., snoring] from
a bed partner)
Previous treatments of insomnia
Initiate sleep at the same time each night.
Use the bed for nighttime sleeping, not for daytime napping.
Exercise, but not in late afternoon.
Avoid alcohol and caffeine during the evenings.
Eat a moderate evening meal at least 2–3 hours
Keep bedroom temperature between 65° and 72°F.
Use "white noise" to overcome disruptive
If unable to sleep, get out of bed and engage in some nonstimulating
activity, such as reading or listening to music.
Trazodone (25–50 mg)
Zolpidem (Ambien) (5 mg)
Temazepam (Restoril) (15 mg)
Zaleplon (Sonata) (10 mg)
Eszopiclone (Lunesta) (1–2 mg)