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Another candidate gene of interest in response and repair processes following TBI is the gene encoding apolipoprotein E (apoE). ApoE is a complex glycolipoprotein that facilitates the uptake, transport, and distribution of lipids. A four-exon gene, APOE, codes for apoE on chromosome 19 in humans. The gene for apoE has three major alleles: APOE*E2, APOE*E3, and APOE*E4. These alleles differ in amino acids at positions 112 and 158: *E2 (cysteine/cysteine), *E3 (cysteine/arginine), and *E4 (arginine/arginine). ApoE appears to play an important role in neuronal repair and plasticity after neurotrauma (Chen et al. 1997). Animal models suggest a link between the *E4 allele and increased mortality, extent of damage, and poor repair following trauma (Chen et al. 1997; Hartman et al. 2002). The human *E4 allele has been associated with a variety of disorders with prominent cognitive dysfunction, including normal subjects with memory complaints (Laws et al. 2002), Alzheimer's disease, and poor outcomes in stroke and TBI (Chen et al. 1997; Nathoo et al. 2003).

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APOE mRNA and protein expression in postmortem brain are modulated by an extended haplotype structure. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2010;153B(2):409-17.doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30993.
 
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