Follow-Up Studies of Psychosis Occurring After TBI | Retrospective Studies of TBI in Patients With Schizophrenia | Risk Factors and Predictors of Posttraumatic Psychosis
Among Individuals With TBI
Many studies of brain-injured persons have proceeded since Kraepelin (1919) first proposed that such injury may cause dementia praecox.
Together, these studies offer substantial evidence of elevated psychosis
incidence among those exposed to TBI, although the reported rates
vary greatly and many of these studies have methodological problems,
such as the absence of clear diagnostic criteria. In one of the
first studies, Kornilov (1980) followed 340 patients
with brain injury and found "psychotic symptoms" and
a "personality transformation" consistent with
negative symptoms in 26.5% of these patients. In Thomsen's (1984) 10- to 15-year follow-up study of 40 patients who
incurred severe TBI, 20% of the patients were found to
develop posttraumatic psychosis, although the criteria for this
determination were not defined. In an earlier study of Finnish veterans
that also did not use standardized criteria, Hillbom (1960)
found that 7.95% of 415 randomly ascertained Finnish soldiers
with a brain injury went on to develop posttraumatic psychosis.
About one-third of the posttraumatic psychosis group had a clinical
picture resembling schizophrenia, with paranoia and hallucinations,
and 40% had sustained temporal lobe injuries.