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General symptom inventories generally elevated in minor
TBI. Mixed symptom picture.
Depression scales generally elevated after TBI (Busch and Alpern 1998; Dikmen et al. 2004; Jorge and Starkstein 2005) for review; Pagulayan et al. 2008; Schoenhuber and Gentilini 1988).
Mobayed and Dinan (1990) found 20% of
sample met DSM-III criteria.
Federoff et al. (1992) and Jorge et al. (1993a, 1993b, 1994; Jorge and Robinson 2002) found 25%–30% of
their 66 patients depressed at 1 month and 1 year. Overall, almost
50% depression of some form in first year. Similar to Fann et al. (1995).
Depression associated with poorer social and functional
Increased risk of depression and suicide associated
with TBI (Hibbard et al. 1998; Silver et al. 2001).
May occur after very mild TBI, even without loss of
consciousness (Bracken 1987; Nizamie et al. 1988; Pope et al. 1988; Riess et al. 1987; Zwil et al. 1992, 1993).
Increased relative risk of bipolar disorder (van Reekum et al. 2000).
May have increased frequency of "irritable
Relatively rare complication. Can be associated with
TBI-induced affective disorders.
In genetically vulnerable individuals, even mild TBI
associated with increased risk of psychotic disorders (Malaspina et al. 2001).
Symptoms consistent with anxiety often endorsed, but
may not be more frequent than in general population (Schoenhuber and Gentilini 1988). Generalized anxiety disorder found in
roughly 25% (Fann et al. 1995). Increased rate
of generalized anxiety disorder (van Reekum et al. 2000).
Posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder seen in up to 20%–30% (Bryant and Harvey 1999a, 1999b; Mayou et al. 2000), higher in some military combat populations (Hoge et al. 2008; Schneiderman et al. 2008).
Note. TBI = traumatic