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Figure 18–1. Motivational circuitry.The core circuit that mediates the activation of behavior consists of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), basolateral and extended amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (NA). This circuit consists of glutamatergic interconnections among the amygdala, NA, and PFC and dopaminergic afferents from the ventral tegmental area. Three additional components include the -aminobutyric acid (GABA) and neuropeptide projections from the accumbens to the ventral pallidum, and the GABA/neuropeptide projections from the extended amygdala, a cluster of nuclei including the central amygdala nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and shell of the nucleus accumbens. The last component is a series subcircuit composed of GABAergic projections from the ventral pallidum to the mediodorsal thalamus and a reciprocal glutamatergic projection between the thalamus and PFC. This component serves to recapture information exiting the circuit back to the PFC. Output is via the motor cortex, basal ganglia, reticulospinal tract, and pedunculopontine nucleus. The flow of information within and through the circuits permits the translation of motivation into action.Source. Adapted from Kalivas PW, Churchill L, Klitenick MA: "The Circuitry Mediating the Translation of Motivational Stimuli Into Adaptive Motor Responses" in Limbic Motor Circuits and Neuropsychiatry. Edited by Kalivas PW, Barnes CD. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 1993, pp. 237–288. Modified with permission from CRC Press, LLC, and Taylor & Francis.

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