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Soft tissue injuries
Extraocular muscle avulsion
Hemorrhage and edema
Orbital apex syndrome
Intra-axial brainstem damage
Horizontal gaze paresis
Vertical gaze paresis
Abnormalities of accommodation, convergence, and fusion
Vestibular system dysfunctions
from Baker RS, Epstein AD: "Ocular Motor Abnormalities
from Head Trauma." Survey of Ophthalmology 35:245–267,
1991. Used with permission.