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The effects of alcohol and drugs on mood and behavior are numerous. In general, alcohol and other depressant drugs can cause depression, suicidal and homicidal thinking during intoxication, anxiety, hyperactivity, hallucinations, and/or delusions during withdrawal. Cocaine and other stimulant drugs can cause anxiety, hallucinations, and delusions during intoxication, and/or depression and suicidal thinking during withdrawal. As a consequence of addictive disorders, individuals can be withdrawn, asocial, antisocial (including violent behavior), hysterical, passive-aggressive, dependent, and/or narcissistic. Often, these personality features diminish after abstinence from alcohol and drugs and specific treatment of the addictive disorder. The aim of treatment of the addictive disorder is to alter attitudes and behaviors that are detrimental to personality (Blankfield 1986; Mayfield 1979; Miller and Mahler 1991; Schuckit 1983). Brenner et al. (2008) found that individuals with a history of problematic alcohol and drug use were at higher risk to be hospitalized following TBI.

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