Introduction | Natural History | Comorbid Conditions | Initiation of Treatment | Treatment Interventions: General Considerations | Psychological and Environmental Interventions | Pharmacological Therapies | Experimental Therapies | Conclusion | References
Simple motor tics are rapid, fleeting movements such as eye blinking, grimacing, or shoulder shrugging. Complex motor tics are more sustained, orchestrated, or semipurposeful movements such as touching, hopping, hitting self, or making obscene gestures out of context (copropraxia). Simple vocal tics consist of noises such as sniffing, throat clearing, coughing, or snorting. Complex vocal tics include repeating stock phrases such as "you bet" and "all right"; repeating one's own phrases (palilalia); repeating others' words (echolalia); swearing or using obscene language out of context (coprolalia); and paroxysmal changes in volume.