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In light of the findings that neurocognitive deficits appear to be linked with anomalous cerebral blood flow, initial efforts to develop effective remediation strategies have been concerned primarily with the plasticity of the impairments. In one of the first studies on this question, Bellack et al. (1996) demonstrated that performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a measure of executive functioning associated with dorsolateral prefrontal impairment, could be improved by reinforcement and instructions. Bellack and colleagues (Bellack et al. 1996, 2001; Mueser et al. 1995) replicated these findings and extended them to the Category Test, another measure of executive function. Other laboratories have been able to produce comparable effects using our training strategy (Nisbet et al. 1996; Vollema et al. 1995) and slightly different variations.

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