Perhaps the hardest step in treating alcoholism is to help patients recognize that alcohol is causing repetitive difficulties in their lives. One of the challenges is that many people gauge their own problem and intake pattern based on the habits of those around them (Daeppen et al. 1999). Because so many alcoholic people have both alcoholic relatives and heavy-drinking friends, the process of getting them in tune with the risks of continued drinking can be daunting.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Figure 13A–1. Timeline for determining independence of psychiatric symptoms for patients in treatment for alcoholism.
Table Reference Number
Table 13A–1. Features of motivational interviewing
Table Reference Number
Table 13A–2. DSM-IV-TR alcohol-induced disorders


American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000
Brown SA, D'Amico EJ: Outcomes of alcohol treatment for adolescents. Recent Dev Alcohol 15:307–327, 2001
Carroll KM, Nich C, Ball SA, et al: One-year follow-up of disulfiram and psychotherapy for cocaine-alcohol users: sustained effects of treatment. Addiction 95:1335–1349, 2000
Daeppen JB, Smith TL, Schuckit MA: How would you label your own drinking pattern overall? An evaluation of answers provided by 181 high functioning middle-aged men. Alcohol Alcohol 34:767–772, 1999
Fawcett J, Kravitz HM, McGuire M, et al: Pharmacological treatments for alcoholism: revisiting lithium and considering buspirone. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24:666–674, 2000
Fleming MF, Mundt MP, French MT, et al: Brief physician advice for problem drinkers: long-term efficacy and benefit-cost analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:36–43, 2002
Henggeler SW, Schoenwald SK, Pickrel SG: Multisystemic therapy: bridging the gap between university- and community-based treatment. J Consult Clin Psychol 63:709–717, 1995
Johnston LD, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG: Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975–2001, Vol 1: Secondary School Students. Rockville, MD, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2002
Kiefer F, Jahn H, Tarnaske T, et al: Comparing and combining naltrexone and acamprosate in relapse prevention for alcoholism: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:92–99, 2003
Kranzler HR, Del Boca F, Korner P, et al: Adverse effects limit the usefulness of fluvoxamine for the treatment of alcoholism. J Subst Abuse Treat 10:283–287, 1993
Krystal JH, Cramer JA, Krol WF, et al: Naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence. N Engl J Med 345:1734–1739, 2001
Marlatt GA, Gordon JR: Relapse Prevention: Maintenance Strategies in the Treatment of Addictive Behaviors. New York, Guilford, 1985
Mason BJ: Treatment of alcohol-dependent outpatients with acamprosate: a clinical review. J Clin Psychiatry 62 (suppl 20):42–48, 2001
Morgenstern J, Longabaugh R: Cognitive-behavioral treatment for alcohol dependence: a review of evidence for its hypothesized mechanisms of action. Addiction 95:1475–1490, 2000
O'Brien CP, McLellan AT: Myths about the treatment of addiction. Lancet 347:237–240, 1996
O'Farrell TJ, Choquette KA, Cutter HSG: Couples relapse prevention sessions after behavioral marital therapy for male alcoholics: outcomes during the 3 years after starting treatment. J Stud Alcohol 59:357–370, 1998
Pollock N, Martin C: Diagnostic orphans: adolescents with alcohol symptoms who do not qualify for DSM-IV abuse or dependence diagnoses. Am J Psychiatry 156:897–901, 1999
Project MATCH Research Group: Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: Project MATCH three-year drinking outcomes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22:1300–1311, 1998
Rohde P, Lewinsohn PM, Seeley JR: Psychiatric comorbidity with problematic alcohol use in high school students. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:101–109, 1996
Schuckit MA: Drug and Alcohol Abuse: A Clinical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment, 5th Edition. New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 2000
Schuckit MA, Tipp JE, Reich T, et al: The histories of withdrawal convulsions and delirium tremens in 1648 alcohol dependent subjects. Addiction 90:1335–1347, 1995
Schuckit MA, Tipp JE, Bergman M, et al: Comparison of induced and independent major depressive disorders in 2,945 alcoholics. Am J Psychiatry 154:948–957, 1997
Smith TL, Volpe FR, Hashima JN, et al: Impact of a stimulant-focused enhanced program on the outcome of alcohol- and/or stimulant-dependent men. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23:1772–1779, 1999
Sullivan J, Sykora K, Schneiderman J, et al: Assessment of alcohol withdrawal: the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar). Br J Addict 84:1353–1357, 1989
Winters KC, Henly GA: Personal Experience Inventory Test and Manual. Los Angeles, CA, Western Psychological Services, 1989
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7th Edition > Chapter 2.  >
Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7th Edition > Chapter 3.  >
Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7th Edition > Chapter 11.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 8.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 11.  >
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
[New treatment options for alcohol dependence]. MMW Fortschr Med 2013;155(8):63-5.
Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review. Ind Psychiatry J 2013;22(2):100-8.doi:10.4103/0972-6748.132914.
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation