Thomas R. Kosten, M.D.; Mehmet Sofuoglu, M.D., Ph.D.



Cocaine and amphetamine are psychoactive agents that increase central nervous system (CNS) activity and produce powerful reinforcing effects (e.g., euphoria, elevated mood, high) that contribute to their high abuse liability. Although a great deal has been learned about the reward mechanisms underlying stimulant abuse, the development of effective pharmacotherapy has lagged behind. The pharmacological and behavioral treatment approaches used for cocaine abuse also appear to be applicable to the treatment of amphetamine use, but no treatment agents are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for this use.

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Table Reference Number
Table 16A–1. Pharmacological targets for cocaine dependence


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